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US Mint in The Dalles (basement)

US Mint in The Dalles (basement)

It is a little known fact that Abraham Lincoln commissioned the building of a branch mint in The Dalles in 1864. The government put 100,000 dollars into the building, before abandoning the effort. Historians say that the drying up of the gold fields in Oregon. and the Columbia River’s periodic floods were reasons the mint was never completed. By 1875 what was completed of the mint was given to the State of Oregon for educational purposes. It was never used for those purposes. Today Tim Schechtel, now part owner of the old mint has sunk about a million dollars into the 145 year old structure and has established the Erin Glenn Winery and entertainment venue there. Recently on an historical tour I was shown the basement of the structure. It was built of massively thick walls, arched columns and beautiful truncated ceilings within numerous catacombs. The structure was built from andrasite sandstone stone blocks carved from rock hauled from the local Mill Creek area and brick. Tim, a former builder refinished the basement with respect to its history and took care to re-use all the original brick. What you see in these pictures is the beautiful transformation of this basement into a wine cellar.

The very mention of Carson City causes most collectors’ ears to perk up a bit. And everyone knows that the main United States mint is, and always has been located in Philadelphia. Three other locations of early U.S. mints in the South have been Dahlonega, Ga., Charlotte, N.C., and New Orleans, La.

In addition to Philadelphia, the current mints are the famous San Francisco branch mint, the Denver Mint and the toddler West Point, N.Y., facility which has been in business since only 1973 as compared to 1792, 1854 and 1906, respectively, for the other three.

But how many of us have heard of the U.S mint that was located in The Dalles in Oregon? Could we have had a "TD" mintmark? Or perhaps "DC," as it was originally known as Dalles City. I invite you to take a walk with me, back to the mid-1800s, as we learn about this fascinating story, and some of the people and the events that transpired.

Then called Dalles City, it was the departure point in the 1840s that thousands of pioneers, bypassing the mountains, rafted down the Columbia river to the Willamette river, and settled in its rich western Oregon valley.

The Dalles was the end of the land route of the Oregon Trail. In the fall of 1849, U.S. Army troops arrived in the new Oregon Territory and established a military outpost at The Dalles, with a log fort finished in 1850 and named Fort Dalles. The town was a missionary and military center. Army troops assigned there were to keep tabs on Indians.

On July 13, 1861, William Logan received a coveted patronage appointment as U.S. Indian agent for the Warm Springs Reservation by President Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Logan located his new home on Fifteen Mile Creek, and there was a good reason why. The new home’s location was within fairly easy reach northward to The Dalles, site of the Warm Springs administrative offices, and shortened the distance southward to the reservation, 80 miles below The Dalles.

Logan foresaw trouble for Warm Springs when reports had told of great amounts of gold discovered on Oct. 23, 1861. What he did not foresee was that the bonanza would lead to a mint being built in The Dalles.

The first find was in a gulch leading into the Powder river. Near the site of the first strike rose Auburn, capital of the gold rush, in the Elkhorn range of the Blue Mountains, eight miles southwest of today’s Baker city. Today Auburn is gone – not even a ghost town remains. But, from this area once left armed parties toting millions upon millions of dollars’ worth of gold.

Men on horseback, pack mules, freight wagons and stage coaches overcame 800 winding miles of almost impassible trails to get the treasure to the big trading center of The Dalles.

Somewhere out there in the mining crowd was Logan’s ex-workers. The almost legendary Blue Bucket Mine of Oregon Trail lore led to the eastern Oregon gold discovery. The find was made, almost accidentally, by the remnants of a party of 50 men, mostly in their 20s and 30s. They had set out from distant Portland to seek the Blue Bucket. The party, dwindled to a weary 22, camped in a high elevation one chilly fall evening. To keep warm, Henry Griffin dug into a gravely bank. He spotted bright flecks of gold. His buddy, David Littlefield, agreed. As they dug to the bedrock, the gold increased. The party had struck it rich.

Each of the 22 men staked out a claim. All but four departed before winter closed in. Left to try and mine in the snows were Griffin, Littlefield, F.W. Schriver and William Stafford. By spring, they had a hefty fortune. With supplies low, Littlefield and Schriver set off for "the outside" to convert part of their hoard into food, clothing and equipment.

They trudged 300 miles to Fort Walla Walla. When storekeepers looked askew at the dust, a visitor stepped forward. He was the merchant-trader Orlando Humason of W.C. Moody & Co. of The Dalles, one of Logan’s business partners. Then and there Humason made Moody & Co. a gold trading firm. He bought the raw gold.

Suddenly, the gold flames flashed again. It came on June 7, 1862, at Whiskey Gulch on Canyon Creek, south and a bit east of Warm springs, near the present Canyon City area. Here prospectors spotted gold nuggets in a clear stream. Some $26 million in gold came from that single little canyon alone, says Miles F. Potter in his book, Oregon’s Golden Years. In another account about The Dalles, from his book Across the Continent, Samuel Bowles stated: "Two million dollars in gold dust came in here from eastern Oregon and Idaho in the single month of June last (1865)".

The gold strike news spread like wild fire. The "flames" fanned out into all the Owyhee country – eastern Oregon and parts of Idaho, Washington and Montana. Prospectors swarmed in. In 1862 there were some 80,000 prospectors who were seeking and finding their fortunes. It was a full-fledged gold rush. This also led to demands for a mint to be built in the region.

The Dalles, nerve center of the vast gold rush, reached a population at times of 10,000, counting those coming in from the diggings, or going to them. It was here that the raw gold seemed to always flow. It was a busy, rip-roaring city. Business boomed, including such 24-hour conveniences as saloons, gambling joints and houses of ill repute. Every man carried a handgun.

Some years later, the Dalles Chronicle commented on the times: "Payment for all commodities was made in gold dust. The god of gold reigned supreme in The Dalles. Human values were forgotten. Bags of gold were handled about as freely as other commodities. They were passed across the counter and gambling tables or bars in payment (of) merchandise, debts or drinks. There was no service for less than $1. The Wells Fargo Express Co. carried the gold dust and bullion to the San Francisco mint by boat". Gold coins, nearly all of the Coronet type, were the media of exchange, although gold dust was accepted. Silver coins were few and far between, with any that were found being mostly the Seated Liberty design.

Dealers paid $15 to $17 a troy ounce for native gold, depending on purity. It brought up to $20.67 at the San Francisco Mint, some 1,000 miles away. The gold moved from The Dalles via riverboat more than 90 miles to the fresh water seaport at Portland, and then on ocean going vessels down the lower Columbia to the Pacific Ocean and on to the Golden Gate – a clumsy, costly arrangement. A U.S. mint and assay office was needed closer to the mines.

All things considered, The Dalles was the logical site. It was the natural gateway to and from the huge expanse of gold fields 300 miles and more to the east. It was in The Dalles that miners bought up supplies, and also returned with their packs of the precious yellow ore. The city began to challenge Portland, recognized as the commercial center of the entire Oregon country.

On Dec. 17, 1862, Oregon’s Senator James W. Nesmith introduced a mint bill, with Portland as the site named. It was estimated that in the facilities first year, it would handle $10 million or more in raw gold. But compared to the main mint in Philadelphia, this mint site, of course, was in a far off and sparsely settled part of the country – Oregon then being not quite three years old as a state. But Nesmith’s bill was placed on the backburner by congressional committees busy with the Civil War.

But on July 4, 1864, the 38th Congress in a wartime session agreed with the Oregon delegation that a mint should be built to turn into coins and ingots the gold reaching The Dalles.

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that a branch mint of the United States be located and established at Dalles City, in the State of Oregon, for the coinage of gold and silver", states 13 Stat. L., 382-83, which is the reference to the document of 145 years ago.

The purpose: To mint coinage badly needed by the North in its prosecution of the Civil War, and to end the long and expensive shipments by water of the raw gold to the San Francisco branch mint, some 1,000 miles away. This shocked state legislators and western Oregon diehards because it named The Dalles as the mint site, not Portland. Also enacted were the following officers of said mint: one superintendent, one assayer, one melter and refiner and one coiner. The superintendent was allowed as many clerks and laborers as needed to run the mint.

The Mint Act authorized the striking of both gold and silver at The Dalles. But the predominant metal in the region was gold, so silver coins were probably not seriously considered. Gold coins would have been the $1 Indian Princess Head (large head), $2.50 Classic Head, possibly the $3 Indian Princess Head, and $5, $10 and $20 Coronet Liberty Head coins.

In 1865, a bill which proposed changing the mint site from The Dalles to Portland was introduced in Congress, reflecting the sectional bickering going on in Oregon. I guess there was political turmoil, even back then. With sectionalism and bureaucratic delays, there was no mint activity at all in The Dalles. Gold bullion accumulated there, and crowds of young miners made it a wide-open town.

Construction that had started at the now famous branch mint in Carson City in 1866, created new hope in frontier Oregon. But yet another idle year passed by. The only action taken on The Dalles mint act was Congress’ decision not to change the site.

In 1865, having set an impressive management record as U.S. Indian agent, William Logan was given an even more prestigious federal appointment – superintendent of the U.S. branch mint at The Dalles. President Lincoln knew of Logan, and favorably, from his record and through several mutual friends. They may have even met.

Logan appeared to be an honest, talented and well liked man of the Old West. The Dalles newspaper, the Mountaineer, described him as "a friendly man of great natural abilities and commanding presence … a leading citizen, generous to a fault".

Around midyear, 1865, William Logan, his wife Izza and their son Hugh, 15, left for San Francisco to find medical help for Mrs. Logan, who had been suffering from an illness for three months. They checked in at the Russ House on June 17. Mrs. Logan responded well to treatment.

On the afternoon before departing to return home on the ill-fated steamer S.S. Brother Jonathon, Logan and his young son Hugh Logan, who was to remain in San Francisco longer, went to the sub-treasury and picked up $15,000 for Indian Affairs. All the government money was in the unpopular greenbacks.

Mr. and Mrs. Logan boarded the 220-foot ship on the morning of July 28, 1865. It was a 1,360-ton sidewheeler, which sat low in the water with a heavy load of 500 tons of cargo. It consisted of machinery, casks of whiskey and a large amount of money. The vessel held between 220 and 255 passengers and crew. Among the passengers was Major E.W. Eddy, an army paymaster, and his clerk, taking $200,000 in U.S. Notes north for the military.

Over the next two days of sailing, the wind intensified beyond gale force, and the waves ran mountain-top high. On July 30, 1865, at midday, the ship’s end was drawing near. As Capt. Samuel J. DeWolf tried in vain to guide his craft to safety in the harbor of Crescent City, a huge wave tossed the ship, and impaled it on the undersea tip of Saint George Reef, eight miles off the shore. The impact was so jarring that both passengers and crew were tossed overboard. As the ship broke apart, one lifeboat load of 19 persons reached shore. William and Izza were not among them. So ended the would-be legacy of The Dalles first mint superintendent, William Logan. Had he lived, the story of the mint at The Dalles might have been a far different one. The ship was finally located in 1993. A bounty of more than 1,200 gold coins was recovered, dominated by mint state 1865-S double eagles.

According to the Wasco County book of deeds, Mary Laughlin, who was the widow of William Laughlin (Wasco county pioneers), donated a one block site for the mint on June 6, 1865.

Almost three years later, the Mountaineer broke the good news that two local men had been named to start the branch mint project. Harvey A. Hogue was appointed construction superintendent, and D.M. French, disbursing agent. Then there was silence from the East.

Six weeks later the impatient Mountaineer assumed there had been another runaround. It told readers, "Our faith in the final building and establishment of the branch mint in The Dalles wavers, flickers, dies and skedaddles. We advise our friends to no longer hold the future of our town upon the building of the branch mint, as we honestly believe that it will never be accomplished".

However, on June 27, 1868, the Mountaineer was glad to report that "a commission was received by H.A. Hogue as superintendent (of construction) and D.M. French as disbursing agent for erection of the branch mint. Once more indications are favorable that the long talked of branch mint will be built".

Local suppliers were to furnish brick, sand, lime, lumber and similar supplies. Sandstone and granite would be cut from quarries on Mill Creek and hauled by horse-drawn drays five miles to the mint site.

On the blueprints, the design for the mint building was well proportioned and attractive. To the non-architectural eye, it was shaped like two rectangles, one larger than the other, placed across each other. The Carson City Mint is of similar design. Plans at The Dalles called for the lengthwise portion to be just over 90 feet, by almost 51 feet. The crosswise section, which had the main entrance at one end and an engine-boiler room attached at the rear, was 63 feet by 51 feet, 8 inches.

"The building is to be two stories high, having a basement under all of it", stated A.B. Mullet, the Treasury departments’ supervising architect. "It will be constructed of stone and brick, portions of it will be groined for brick floors and portions will have wooden floors". The blueprints were complete for the mint, but never entirely used to complete the building.

The mint’s bright top, had it been built as planned, would have been a colorful landmark visible for miles around from The Dalles, for it was to be "painted with three coats of linseed oil and Venetian red".

By April 1869, Hogue wrote to Mullet, stating, "I hope to get the building erected and roof on before winter. Yesterday I wrote you that I had been to Portland for the purpose of procuring more stone masons and cutters".

Sealed bids from suppliers were opened on April 29, 1869, by French, Hogue and Samuel I. Brooks of the Department of Collector of the U.S. Revenue Service. An idea of the project’s size and of the 1869 prices of materials is had from a preview of successful bids. (The word "perch" was used in a number of instances, and was a measurement of stone, usually equal to 24.75 cubic feet). Following are some of the successful bids:

A.C. Phelps, hauling dimension limestone from J.H. Phillips, $3 per perch; A.C. Phelps, hauling wall granite from quarry, $2.90 per perch; Bulger & Gibbons, dimensional sandstone quarried and delivered, $2.40 per perch; Bulger & Gibbons, wall sandstone quarried and delivered, $2.23 per perch; Bulger & Gibbons, sand delivered, 4 cents per bushel; Abrams & Newell, bricks delivered $15 per 1,000; Abrams & Bonay, fir lumber delivered, $20 per 1,000 feet; Abrams & Bonay, pine lumber delivered, $25 per 1,000 feet; J.M. French, Rosendale cement delivered, $8.62 a barrel; J.M. French, Santa Cruz lime delivered, $5.62 a barrel. Today, those prices are almost unbelievable.

On June 11, 1869, the Mountaineer told its readers that "the basement walls are almost completed and the structure is beginning to raise itself above the ground. The brick laying is progressing finely and a great many beautiful arches now span the basement built by Mr. Runey, the mechanic in the brick department".

Late in 1869 the first floor of the structure was completed and much admired for the beauty of its stonework. The one-foot thick blocks, with widths and lengths varying, some one foot and others two, had raised outside surfaces, dressed with flat borders. Later, in 1922 The Dalles Chronicle wrote of the building "Each block was dressed to perfect shape by skilled Dalles masons. The window ledges are of one stone, perfectly set in place. The spacious front doorway is plain but attractive in the massive stone arrangement, with a narrow border just above the door. A wide single step leads to the door. The same durability of structure marks the interior, the partitions being of stone and brick. The basement is a labyrinth of arched stone supports and passageways".

Then, over a period of weeks, very little change was noticed. Work had all but stopped. The Mountaineer spoke on June 28, 1870: "We are informed that orders have been received by superintendent Hogue to suspend for the present, work on the mint building". That was the end of the dream of a mint at The Dalles. The famous coinage act of Feb. 12, 1873, by omission, made it official. The act named mints and assay offices authorized to operate in the United States. The Dalles branch had been omitted.

Several factors contributed to the demise of The Dalles mint. First, of course, the Treasury and Mint by policy did not want another mint. Second, the region’s gold rush was drawing to an end in 1870, being nine years old. Cost over-runs, workers leaving to work the gold fields, and flooding from the Columbia River, also contributed to the project running two years behind schedule and led eventually to the project’s end.

Gold production slowed, as the easily reached surface gold had been recovered. Also by 1870, roads had improved to handle stagecoach shipments. This, and the coming of the railroads to the West spelled the end of the complicated passage of gold by river and deep sea vessels. Then, too, money was becoming in exceedingly short supply with the approach of a nationwide financial depression which reached its peak with the Panic of 1873.

Construction superintendent Hogue was placed in charge of the one-story building and was to sell off the government’s surplus materials, supplies, tools and equipment. But the mint was not about to fade peacefully into limbo. Instead, it was to play something of a hero’s role in a catastrophe that hit The Dalles in 1871. Hogue describes the action as he did for Mullet:

"I regret to inform you … that a disastrous fire occurred in this city, destroying completely 75 business houses, shops and dwellings, in which the government sustained a loss, approximating $1,500 in the burning of lumber and tools". He also went on to narrate the character of the fire, and how the little mint building saved the day:

"The wind blew furiously, making a perfect tempest of fire sweeping everything before it – houses, fences, sidewalks, street crossings, shrubbery, trees … on four entire blocks, 220 x 300 feet, and two half blocks. Burning shingles were carried miles from the city by the wind; one picked up three miles out. Two haystacks were fired and burned from this cause, more than a half a mile from the nearest fire".

It must have been with genuine pride in his abbreviated building that Hogue wrote, "The fire was not checked until it reached the mint building, which being located in the center of a block, constructed of stone, broke the current and fury of the flames. And (the) adjoining block above, being vacant, enabled the firemen and citizens to control it, and prevented further destruction of property".

Although the mint building escaped the flames of 1871, not so in 1943 when fire badly damaged the rear interior. The structure, by then in private ownership as it is today, was repaired in 1947.

On March 3, 1875, the 43rd Congress passed an act giving the building to the state of Oregon, not to The Dalles, which had provided the mint’s site. The donation was made "on condition that the … building and lot shall be appropriated by the state … to the use of some educational or charitable institution".

Years later, the state, unable to find a proper use for the structure, sold it in 1889 to private citizens, allocating the money to public education funds. A large concrete block addition was later constructed on the north side of the building and the building was put to other uses. The building has sat vacant for years at a time over the past century. However, there have been a number of owners of the building, who have put it to various uses.

In the early 1980s, it housed Ralph’s Transfer & Storage Co. Prior to that was the R.W. Hughes Feed & Grain Co. It is currently home to the Erin Glenn Winery.

The U.S. mint at The Dalles, however, was a reality. The old building still stands after almost 150 years, and still serves a purpose in the 21st century.

Posted by rooftop65 on 2009-09-24 07:54:16

Tagged: , US MInt in The Dalles , Winery basement circa , 1864 , Oregon , Erin Glenn Winery

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From the Official Programme

THE NATIONAL COMMEMORATION OF THE CENTENARY OF THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN AND ANZAC DAY AT THE CENOTAPH, WHITEHALL, LONDON
HOSTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE HIGH COMMISSIONS OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND IN LONDON

On 25 April 1915 Allied soldiers landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey in one of the most ambitious amphibious assaults in history.

More than 550,000 soldiers from Britain, Ireland, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian sub-continent, Canada and Sri Lanka waged this historic campaign, including 400,000 from Britain alone. 58,000 Allied servicemen and 87,000 from Turkey died in this campaign.

ANZAC Day was established by Australia and New Zealand as an annual day of commemoration to remember their servicemen who died in Gallipoli. The first ANZAC Day march in London took place on 25 April 1916. ANZAC Day has been commemorated in London on 25 April every year since then.

ORDER OF SERVICE

11:00 Big Ben strikes the hour
Two minutes’ silence

The Last Post Sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

Reading by Michael Toohey, age 22, descendant of Private Thomas Toohey, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, killed in action at V beach on 25 April 1915, aged 22.

The Fallen by Laurence Binyon, 4th verse, published in The Times on 21 September 1914

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: age shall not weary them nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning, we will remember them.
All: We will remember them.

Laying of Wreaths

After Her Majesty The Queen has laid a wreath the Massed Bands will play Elegy (1915) – in memoriam Rupert Brooke – by F S Kelly (1881–1916) and Largo by G F Handel (1685–1759).

Her Majesty The Queen lays the first wreath followed by:
The Right Honourable David Cameron, Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Senator the Honourable George Brandis QC, Attorney General, Commonwealth of Australia
The Right Honourable David Carter MP, 29th Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives
A representative of the Republic of Turkey
The Right Honourable Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The Right Honourable Michael Fallon, Secretary of State for Defence
The Right Honourable Sajid Javid, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport
The Right Honourable Hugo Swire, Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Helen Grant, Minister for the First World War Centenary
Dr Andrew Murrison, Prime Minister’s Special Representative for the First World War Centenary
The Right Honourable Ed Miliband, Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition
Keith Brown MSP, Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure, Investment and Cities, Scottish Government
The Right Honourable Carwyn Jones, First Minister, Welsh Government
A representative of the Northern Ireland Executive
Lieutenant General Sir Gerry Berragan KBE CB, Adjutant General
Air Marshal Dick Garwood CB CBE DFC, Director General Defence Safety Authority
Vice Admiral Sir Philip Jones KCB, Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
Lieutenant General John Caligari AO DSC, Chief Capability Development Group, Australian Defence Force
Brigadier Antony Hayward ONZ, Head New Zealand Defence Staff, New Zealand High Commission
Colonel Ömer Özkan, Air Attaché, Embassy of Turkey
A representative of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Steven Vandeput, Minister of Defence of Belgium
His Excellency Gordon Campbell, High Commissioner for Canada
A representative of the Republic of France
A representative of the Federal Republic of Germany
His Excellency Dr Ranjan Mathai, High Commissioner for the Republic of India
His Excellency Daniel Mulhall, Ambassador of Ireland to the United Kingdom
His Excellency The Honourable Joseph Muscat, Prime Minister of the Republic of Malta
A representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
His Excellency Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
His Excellency The Honourable Peter O’Neill CMG MP, Prime Minister of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
His Excellency Mr Obed Mlaba, High Commissioner for the Republic of South Africa
A representative of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sonata Tupou, Acting High Commissioner for the Kingdom of Tonga
The Honourable Bronwyn Bishop MP, Speaker to the Australian House of Representatives
Bill Muirhead AM, Agent-General for South Australia
Ken Smith, Trade Commissioner for Europe and Agent General for UK at Trade & Investment Queensland
Kevin Skipworth CVO, Agent-General for Western Australia
Ian Matterson, Representative of the Premier of Tasmania
Mathew Erbs, on behalf of the Agent-General for Victoria
Gary Dunn, Deputy Commonwealth Secretary General
General The Lord Richards of Herstmonceux GCB CBE DSO, Deputy Grand President, British Commonwealth Ex-Servicemen’s League
Vice Admiral Peter Wilkinson CB CVO, National President, the Royal British Legion
Right Honourable The Viscount Slim OBE DL, Returned and Services League of Australia
Colonel Andrew Martin ONZM, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services Association
Lindsay Birrell, CEO, London Legacy
Captain Christopher Fagan DL, Chairman, The Gallipoli Association
The Honourable Mrs Ros Kelly AO, Commissioner, Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Sue Pillar, Director of Volunteer Support, Soldiers’ And Sailors’ Families Association (SSAFA)
Captain Jim Conybeare, Master, The Honourable Company of Master Mariners
Lyn Hopkins, Director General, The Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship
Sir Anthony Figgis KCVO CMG, Chairman, Royal Overseas League

Reveille sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

THE PRAYERS

Prayer by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

God our Father, we come together today to honour all those who gave themselves with great courage in service and sacrifice for their country in the Gallipoli Campaign. We pray that their example may continue to inspire us to strive for the common good, that we may build up the harmony and freedom for which they fought and died.

Help us O Lord, to lift our eyes above the torment of this broken world, and strengthen our resolve to work for peace and justice, and for the relief of want and suffering. As we honour the past, may we put our faith in your future; for you are the source of life and hope, now and forever. Amen.

Hymn led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

I Vow To Thee My Country

All:
I vow to thee, my country, all earthly things above,
Entire and whole and perfect, the service of my love;
The love that asks no question, the love that stands the test,
That lays upon the altar the dearest and the best;
The love that never falters, the love that pays the price,
The love that makes undaunted the final sacrifice.
I heard my country calling, away across the sea,
Across the waste of waters, she calls and calls to me.
Her sword is girded at her side, her helmet on her head,
And around her feet are lying the dying and the dead;
I hear the noise of battle, the thunder of her guns;
I haste to thee, my mother, a son among thy sons.
And there’s another country, I’ve heard of long ago,
Most dear to them that love her, most great to them that know;
We may not count her armies, we may not see her King;
Her fortress is a faithful heart, her pride is suffering;
And soul by soul and silently her shining bounds increase,
And her ways are ways of gentleness, and all her paths are peace.

Prayer read by Grace van Gageldonk (14 years old) from Australia

God of compassion and mercy, we remember with thanksgiving and sorrow, those whose lives in world wars and conflicts past and present, have been
given and taken away.
Enfold in your love, all who in bereavement, disability and pain, continue to suffer the consequences of fighting and terror; and guide and protect all those who support and sustain them. Amen.

National anthem Advance Australia Fair

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil,
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature’s gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history’s page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
‘Advance Australia Fair’.

Prayer read by Kathryn Cooper (11 years old) from New Zealand

God of hope, the source of peace and the refuge of all in distress, we remember those you have gathered from the storm of war into the everlasting peace of your presence; may that same peace calm our fears, bring reconciliation and justice to all peoples, and establish lasting harmony among the nations.

We pray for all members of the armed forces who strive for peace and fight for justice today; bless and keep their families and friends at home awaiting their return. Help us, who today remember the cost of war, to work for a better tomorrow, and bring us all, in the end, to the peace of your presence; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

National anthem God Defend New Zealand

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

E Ihowā _Atua,
O ngā _iwi mātou rā
Āta whakarangona;
Me aroha noa
Kia hua ko te pai;
Kia tau tō _atawhai;
Manaakitia mai
Aotearoa
God of Nations at Thy feet,
in the bonds of love we meet,
hear our voices, we entreat,
God defend our free land.
Guard Pacific’s triple star
from the shafts of strife and war,
make her praises heard afar,
God defend New Zealand.

Reading Atatürk’s message to bereaved pilgrims, 1934, read by Ecenur Bilgiç (14 years old) from Turkey

Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives…
You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace.

There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours…
You, the mothers, who sent their sons from faraway countries, wipe away your tears; your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace, after having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well.

National anthem İstiklal Marşı (The Independence March)

Led by Burak Gülşen from Turkey, accompanied by the Massed Bands

Korkma, sönmez bu şafaklarda yüzen al sancak;
Sönmeden yurdumun üstünde tüten en son ocak.
O benim milletimin yıldızıdır, parlayacak;
O benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak.
Çatma, kurban olayım, çehreni ey nazlı hilal!
Kahraman ırkıma bir gül! Ne bu şiddet, bu celal?
Sana olmaz dökülen kanlarımız sonra helal…
Hakkıdır, Hakk’a tapan, milletimin istiklal!
Fear not! For the crimson flag that flies at this dawn, shall not fade,
As long as the last fiery hearth that is ablaze in my country endures.
For that is the star of my nation, which will forever shine;
It is mine; and solely that of my valiant nation.
Frown not, I beseech you, oh thou coy crescent!
Come smile upon my heroic race! Why this rage, this fury?
The blood we shed for you shall not be blessed otherwise;
For independence is the absolute right of my God-worshipping nation.

Remembering Gallipoli a commemoration created by Michael McDermott

Music composed by Michael McDermott
Reading by James McDermott (17 years old) from the United Kingdom
The Attack at Dawn (May, 1915) by Leon Maxwell Gellert (1892–1977)

‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
They told us in the early afternoon.
We sit and wait the coming of the sun
We sit in groups, — grey groups that watch the moon.
We stretch our legs and murmur half in sleep
And touch the tips of bayonets and yarn.
Our hands are cold. They strangely grope and creep,
Tugging at ends of straps. We wait the dawn!
Some men come stumbling past in single file.
And scrape the trench’s side and scatter sand.
They trip and curse and go. Perhaps we smile.
We wait the dawn! … The dawn is close at hand!
A gentle rustling runs along the line.
‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
A hundred eyes are staring for the sign.
It’s coming! Look! … Our God’s own laughing sun!

Closing prayers by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

Eternal God,
from whom all thoughts of truth and peace proceed;
Kindle, we pray, in the hearts of all, the true love of peace
and guide with your pure and peaceable wisdom
those who take counsel for the nations of the world,
that in tranquillity your kingdom may go forward,
and all people may spend their days in security, freedom and peace;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Merciful God
we offer to you the fears in us
that have not yet been cast out by love:
may we accept the hope you have
placed in the hearts of all people,
and live lives of justice, courage and mercy;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Lord’s Prayer

All:
Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come, thy will be done;
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give is this day our daily bread.
And forgive is our trespasses,
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those that trespass against us.
And lead is not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom,
the power and the glory,
fro ver and ever. Amen.

The Blessing

God grant to the living grace, to the departed rest,
to the Church, the Queen, the Commonwealth and all people,
unity, peace and concord,
and to us and all God’s servants, life everlasting;
and the blessing of God almighty,
the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit,
be among you and remain with you always. Amen.

National anthem God Save the Queen

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

God save our gracious Queen,
Long live our noble Queen.
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us;
God save the Queen!

They Are At Rest by Sir Edward Elgar (1857–1934), sung by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral (unaccompanied)

THE MARCH PAST
Contingents from:
The Royal Navy
HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH
The Fleet Air Arm
The Submarine Service
Hybrid (HMS OCEAN, HMS ALBION,
Britannia Royal Naval College)
The Royal Marines
Maritime Reserves (Royal Navy
and Royal Marines Reserves)
Representatives from the Armed Forces of other countries who fought at Gallipoli
invited to join the March Past:
Australia
New Zealand
Canada
Turkey
India
Germany
Ireland
France
Bangladesh
Pakistan
South Africa
Papua New Guinea
Tonga
The Gallipoli Association
Naval Services Associations
The Royal Naval Association
The Royal Marines Association
Army Units and their Associations
The Royal Regiment of Artillery
The Royal Corps of Engineers
The Royal Regiment of Scotland
The Princess of Wales’ Royal Regiment
The Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment
The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers
The Royal Anglian Regiment
The Yorkshire Regiment
The Mercian Regiment
The Royal Welsh
The Royal Irish Regiment
The Royal Gurkha Rifles
The Rifles
The Royal Logistics Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Veterinary Corps
The Royal Yeomanry
The Royal Wessex Yeomanry
The Scottish and North Irish Yeomanry
The London Regiment
Court & City Yeomanry Association
In-Pensioners of the Royal Hospital Chelsea
The Turkish Air Force Band plays Marche Mustafa Kemal Atatürk by Fazıl Çağlayan
Followed by: Descendants of those whose ancestors were involved in the Gallipoli campaign and others who march past the Cenotaph every year to commemorate Anzac Day.

Posted by veryamateurish on 2015-04-29 04:44:01

Tagged: , United Kingdom , London , Westminster , Whitehall , Cenotaph , Remembrance , Commemoration , Centenary , Gallipoli , World War One , First World War , Turkey , Australia , New Zealand , ANZAC Day , ANZAC

Img450142nx2

Img450142nx2

From the Official Programme

THE NATIONAL COMMEMORATION OF THE CENTENARY OF THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN AND ANZAC DAY AT THE CENOTAPH, WHITEHALL, LONDON
HOSTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE HIGH COMMISSIONS OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND IN LONDON

On 25 April 1915 Allied soldiers landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey in one of the most ambitious amphibious assaults in history.

More than 550,000 soldiers from Britain, Ireland, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian sub-continent, Canada and Sri Lanka waged this historic campaign, including 400,000 from Britain alone. 58,000 Allied servicemen and 87,000 from Turkey died in this campaign.

ANZAC Day was established by Australia and New Zealand as an annual day of commemoration to remember their servicemen who died in Gallipoli. The first ANZAC Day march in London took place on 25 April 1916. ANZAC Day has been commemorated in London on 25 April every year since then.

ORDER OF SERVICE

11:00 Big Ben strikes the hour
Two minutes’ silence

The Last Post Sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

Reading by Michael Toohey, age 22, descendant of Private Thomas Toohey, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, killed in action at V beach on 25 April 1915, aged 22.

The Fallen by Laurence Binyon, 4th verse, published in The Times on 21 September 1914

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: age shall not weary them nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning, we will remember them.
All: We will remember them.

Laying of Wreaths

After Her Majesty The Queen has laid a wreath the Massed Bands will play Elegy (1915) – in memoriam Rupert Brooke – by F S Kelly (1881–1916) and Largo by G F Handel (1685–1759).

Her Majesty The Queen lays the first wreath followed by:
The Right Honourable David Cameron, Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Senator the Honourable George Brandis QC, Attorney General, Commonwealth of Australia
The Right Honourable David Carter MP, 29th Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives
A representative of the Republic of Turkey
The Right Honourable Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The Right Honourable Michael Fallon, Secretary of State for Defence
The Right Honourable Sajid Javid, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport
The Right Honourable Hugo Swire, Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Helen Grant, Minister for the First World War Centenary
Dr Andrew Murrison, Prime Minister’s Special Representative for the First World War Centenary
The Right Honourable Ed Miliband, Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition
Keith Brown MSP, Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure, Investment and Cities, Scottish Government
The Right Honourable Carwyn Jones, First Minister, Welsh Government
A representative of the Northern Ireland Executive
Lieutenant General Sir Gerry Berragan KBE CB, Adjutant General
Air Marshal Dick Garwood CB CBE DFC, Director General Defence Safety Authority
Vice Admiral Sir Philip Jones KCB, Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
Lieutenant General John Caligari AO DSC, Chief Capability Development Group, Australian Defence Force
Brigadier Antony Hayward ONZ, Head New Zealand Defence Staff, New Zealand High Commission
Colonel Ömer Özkan, Air Attaché, Embassy of Turkey
A representative of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Steven Vandeput, Minister of Defence of Belgium
His Excellency Gordon Campbell, High Commissioner for Canada
A representative of the Republic of France
A representative of the Federal Republic of Germany
His Excellency Dr Ranjan Mathai, High Commissioner for the Republic of India
His Excellency Daniel Mulhall, Ambassador of Ireland to the United Kingdom
His Excellency The Honourable Joseph Muscat, Prime Minister of the Republic of Malta
A representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
His Excellency Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
His Excellency The Honourable Peter O’Neill CMG MP, Prime Minister of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
His Excellency Mr Obed Mlaba, High Commissioner for the Republic of South Africa
A representative of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sonata Tupou, Acting High Commissioner for the Kingdom of Tonga
The Honourable Bronwyn Bishop MP, Speaker to the Australian House of Representatives
Bill Muirhead AM, Agent-General for South Australia
Ken Smith, Trade Commissioner for Europe and Agent General for UK at Trade & Investment Queensland
Kevin Skipworth CVO, Agent-General for Western Australia
Ian Matterson, Representative of the Premier of Tasmania
Mathew Erbs, on behalf of the Agent-General for Victoria
Gary Dunn, Deputy Commonwealth Secretary General
General The Lord Richards of Herstmonceux GCB CBE DSO, Deputy Grand President, British Commonwealth Ex-Servicemen’s League
Vice Admiral Peter Wilkinson CB CVO, National President, the Royal British Legion
Right Honourable The Viscount Slim OBE DL, Returned and Services League of Australia
Colonel Andrew Martin ONZM, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services Association
Lindsay Birrell, CEO, London Legacy
Captain Christopher Fagan DL, Chairman, The Gallipoli Association
The Honourable Mrs Ros Kelly AO, Commissioner, Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Sue Pillar, Director of Volunteer Support, Soldiers’ And Sailors’ Families Association (SSAFA)
Captain Jim Conybeare, Master, The Honourable Company of Master Mariners
Lyn Hopkins, Director General, The Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship
Sir Anthony Figgis KCVO CMG, Chairman, Royal Overseas League

Reveille sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

THE PRAYERS

Prayer by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

God our Father, we come together today to honour all those who gave themselves with great courage in service and sacrifice for their country in the Gallipoli Campaign. We pray that their example may continue to inspire us to strive for the common good, that we may build up the harmony and freedom for which they fought and died.

Help us O Lord, to lift our eyes above the torment of this broken world, and strengthen our resolve to work for peace and justice, and for the relief of want and suffering. As we honour the past, may we put our faith in your future; for you are the source of life and hope, now and forever. Amen.

Hymn led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

I Vow To Thee My Country

All:
I vow to thee, my country, all earthly things above,
Entire and whole and perfect, the service of my love;
The love that asks no question, the love that stands the test,
That lays upon the altar the dearest and the best;
The love that never falters, the love that pays the price,
The love that makes undaunted the final sacrifice.
I heard my country calling, away across the sea,
Across the waste of waters, she calls and calls to me.
Her sword is girded at her side, her helmet on her head,
And around her feet are lying the dying and the dead;
I hear the noise of battle, the thunder of her guns;
I haste to thee, my mother, a son among thy sons.
And there’s another country, I’ve heard of long ago,
Most dear to them that love her, most great to them that know;
We may not count her armies, we may not see her King;
Her fortress is a faithful heart, her pride is suffering;
And soul by soul and silently her shining bounds increase,
And her ways are ways of gentleness, and all her paths are peace.

Prayer read by Grace van Gageldonk (14 years old) from Australia

God of compassion and mercy, we remember with thanksgiving and sorrow, those whose lives in world wars and conflicts past and present, have been
given and taken away.
Enfold in your love, all who in bereavement, disability and pain, continue to suffer the consequences of fighting and terror; and guide and protect all those who support and sustain them. Amen.

National anthem Advance Australia Fair

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil,
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature’s gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history’s page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
‘Advance Australia Fair’.

Prayer read by Kathryn Cooper (11 years old) from New Zealand

God of hope, the source of peace and the refuge of all in distress, we remember those you have gathered from the storm of war into the everlasting peace of your presence; may that same peace calm our fears, bring reconciliation and justice to all peoples, and establish lasting harmony among the nations.

We pray for all members of the armed forces who strive for peace and fight for justice today; bless and keep their families and friends at home awaiting their return. Help us, who today remember the cost of war, to work for a better tomorrow, and bring us all, in the end, to the peace of your presence; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

National anthem God Defend New Zealand

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

E Ihowā _Atua,
O ngā _iwi mātou rā
Āta whakarangona;
Me aroha noa
Kia hua ko te pai;
Kia tau tō _atawhai;
Manaakitia mai
Aotearoa
God of Nations at Thy feet,
in the bonds of love we meet,
hear our voices, we entreat,
God defend our free land.
Guard Pacific’s triple star
from the shafts of strife and war,
make her praises heard afar,
God defend New Zealand.

Reading Atatürk’s message to bereaved pilgrims, 1934, read by Ecenur Bilgiç (14 years old) from Turkey

Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives…
You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace.

There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours…
You, the mothers, who sent their sons from faraway countries, wipe away your tears; your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace, after having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well.

National anthem İstiklal Marşı (The Independence March)

Led by Burak Gülşen from Turkey, accompanied by the Massed Bands

Korkma, sönmez bu şafaklarda yüzen al sancak;
Sönmeden yurdumun üstünde tüten en son ocak.
O benim milletimin yıldızıdır, parlayacak;
O benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak.
Çatma, kurban olayım, çehreni ey nazlı hilal!
Kahraman ırkıma bir gül! Ne bu şiddet, bu celal?
Sana olmaz dökülen kanlarımız sonra helal…
Hakkıdır, Hakk’a tapan, milletimin istiklal!
Fear not! For the crimson flag that flies at this dawn, shall not fade,
As long as the last fiery hearth that is ablaze in my country endures.
For that is the star of my nation, which will forever shine;
It is mine; and solely that of my valiant nation.
Frown not, I beseech you, oh thou coy crescent!
Come smile upon my heroic race! Why this rage, this fury?
The blood we shed for you shall not be blessed otherwise;
For independence is the absolute right of my God-worshipping nation.

Remembering Gallipoli a commemoration created by Michael McDermott

Music composed by Michael McDermott
Reading by James McDermott (17 years old) from the United Kingdom
The Attack at Dawn (May, 1915) by Leon Maxwell Gellert (1892–1977)

‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
They told us in the early afternoon.
We sit and wait the coming of the sun
We sit in groups, — grey groups that watch the moon.
We stretch our legs and murmur half in sleep
And touch the tips of bayonets and yarn.
Our hands are cold. They strangely grope and creep,
Tugging at ends of straps. We wait the dawn!
Some men come stumbling past in single file.
And scrape the trench’s side and scatter sand.
They trip and curse and go. Perhaps we smile.
We wait the dawn! … The dawn is close at hand!
A gentle rustling runs along the line.
‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
A hundred eyes are staring for the sign.
It’s coming! Look! … Our God’s own laughing sun!

Closing prayers by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

Eternal God,
from whom all thoughts of truth and peace proceed;
Kindle, we pray, in the hearts of all, the true love of peace
and guide with your pure and peaceable wisdom
those who take counsel for the nations of the world,
that in tranquillity your kingdom may go forward,
and all people may spend their days in security, freedom and peace;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Merciful God
we offer to you the fears in us
that have not yet been cast out by love:
may we accept the hope you have
placed in the hearts of all people,
and live lives of justice, courage and mercy;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Lord’s Prayer

All:
Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come, thy will be done;
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give is this day our daily bread.
And forgive is our trespasses,
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those that trespass against us.
And lead is not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom,
the power and the glory,
fro ver and ever. Amen.

The Blessing

God grant to the living grace, to the departed rest,
to the Church, the Queen, the Commonwealth and all people,
unity, peace and concord,
and to us and all God’s servants, life everlasting;
and the blessing of God almighty,
the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit,
be among you and remain with you always. Amen.

National anthem God Save the Queen

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

God save our gracious Queen,
Long live our noble Queen.
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us;
God save the Queen!

They Are At Rest by Sir Edward Elgar (1857–1934), sung by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral (unaccompanied)

THE MARCH PAST
Contingents from:
The Royal Navy
HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH
The Fleet Air Arm
The Submarine Service
Hybrid (HMS OCEAN, HMS ALBION,
Britannia Royal Naval College)
The Royal Marines
Maritime Reserves (Royal Navy
and Royal Marines Reserves)
Representatives from the Armed Forces of other countries who fought at Gallipoli
invited to join the March Past:
Australia
New Zealand
Canada
Turkey
India
Germany
Ireland
France
Bangladesh
Pakistan
South Africa
Papua New Guinea
Tonga
The Gallipoli Association
Naval Services Associations
The Royal Naval Association
The Royal Marines Association
Army Units and their Associations
The Royal Regiment of Artillery
The Royal Corps of Engineers
The Royal Regiment of Scotland
The Princess of Wales’ Royal Regiment
The Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment
The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers
The Royal Anglian Regiment
The Yorkshire Regiment
The Mercian Regiment
The Royal Welsh
The Royal Irish Regiment
The Royal Gurkha Rifles
The Rifles
The Royal Logistics Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Veterinary Corps
The Royal Yeomanry
The Royal Wessex Yeomanry
The Scottish and North Irish Yeomanry
The London Regiment
Court & City Yeomanry Association
In-Pensioners of the Royal Hospital Chelsea
The Turkish Air Force Band plays Marche Mustafa Kemal Atatürk by Fazıl Çağlayan
Followed by: Descendants of those whose ancestors were involved in the Gallipoli campaign and others who march past the Cenotaph every year to commemorate Anzac Day.

Posted by veryamateurish on 2015-04-29 10:44:52

Tagged: , United Kingdom , London , Westminster , Whitehall , Cenotaph , Remembrance , Commemoration , Centenary , Gallipoli , World War One , First World War , Turkey , Australia , New Zealand , ANZAC Day , ANZAC

4_In the middle of the sign

4_In the middle of the sign

Script below – Read with Images Sequenced in the Script – JS

The Song of Mary Entler by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com/?p=13488 7888 words

The Song of Mary Entler Herrington by Jim Surkamp

1_The_Song_of_Mary_Entler
The Song of Mary Louise Entler Herrington (1840-1932)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

CHAPTERETTES
Prelude
Flag Dangerous:
Carry the Secret Mail:
The Sad Fate of the Great Western:
A Wartime Shepherdstown Each Day:
A Sidetracked Mission:
“Fraternizing” With the Enemy:
Peacetime – Eternal Tide of Memories:
The Eyes of Age:

About the end of the heydays of a great inn; about the innkeeper’s feisty, adventurous – amorous – young daughter during the Civil War who lived to tell about it and see her family’s inn perish

PRELUDE:

2_The 1850s in Shepherdstown
The 1850s in Shepherdstown: Good Times for Joseph and Mary Entler

3_The Entlers boarded travelers
The Entlers boarded travelers and stabled their teams by the score in their Great Western Inn on Shepherdstown’s German Street.

As Mary Louise Entler Herrington (hereafter “MLH”) told it:
After my father bought it in 1809, he hung a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house.

4_In the middle of the sign
In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘JOS. ENTLER”.

For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back. All these white-covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

The house was a quaint, 52-foot-long weatherboard house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or (carriage stepping stones).

The dining room was 34-feet-long. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five, four-horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River.

5_The large fireplace was in the kitchen
The large fireplace was in the kitchen that also had the cranes and pothooks and hangers.

Seventeen rooms were in the house and many also had large old-fashioned fireplaces and were finished with high-paneled mantelpieces.

In the 1850s children remembered the fancy carriages, with many horses pulling, making the smart, sharp turn from the main streeet to the lane leading to the rear stables.

6_lane leading to the rear stables
All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent.

Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingerd Cottage in 1858 and leased out the Great Western. Then that all ended – and, so did the Great Western.

FLAG DANGEROUS:

7_Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance
Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance – and several friends sat in chairs in the big hall of Wingerd Cottage sewing . . and sewing – ripping stars from an American flag mailed to them from New Orleans, that once waved from a ship of Rezin Davis Shepherd’s, as he perhaps thought such a flag might be more trouble to have in New Orleans, as the new war boiled over and Louisiana seceded from the Union in early 1861.

8_Mary Entler Herrington retold her past
Mary Licklider, a niece, recalled how Mary Entler Herrington retold her past before dying in 1932:

A U.S. flag, probably made of wool bunting fabric was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr.

9_Rezin Shepherd
Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then.

10_Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage
My father Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete.

11_It was very tedious to rip every seam
It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting.

12_Every star was ripped from the blue field
Every star was ripped from the blue field, and

13_then to sew all the red together
then to sew all the red together

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red
and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red.

15_Of course we had a surplus of stars
Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young.

After many weeks of work, the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. (Mary’s brother – Cato Moore Entler – was with Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

MLH recalled an investigation in the fall of 1861:

16_I heard the tramp of cavalry
I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by “Yankee” cavalry.

Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it.

I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide with deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet.

17_My door was pushed open
My door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue-striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery.

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas, the 30th of October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia infantry regiment that the unit reportedly carried into battle at First Manassas/Bull Run, but was smuggled back to the Rutherfords in Charles Town.

CARRY THE SECRET MAIL:

18_Carry_Secret_Mail
March, 1862

MLH recalled:
19_We collected all letters and concealed them
We collected all letters and concealed them by carefully sewing them between the ruching and dress. It required neatness and patience to make the work look innocent of anything contraband. We started on our march one bright beautiful morning but the roads being soft and muddy and we being not yet accustomed to marching could not get over much ground as rapidly as Stonewall Jackson’s men. The first night was spent at the home of Mr. Foley where another mail was collected. Another bright morning blessed our errand and when the purple shades of evening were gathering in the west we entered Charles Town as leisurely and passed the Union soldiers as indifferently as though we were out for an evening stroll. What a triumph it would have been for them to have secured that mail; how they would have gloated over every sacred sentence in those letters. My heart thrilled with fear at the thought although apparently so indifferent to their presence.

20_THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL
THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL:

December 26, 1862: The 12th Pennsylvania cavalry – The Bull Run Racers – crossed over the river ford into town and the (Federal-sympathcizing) refugees all came back from Maryland with a fire in their eyes and revenge for Mort Cookus’ blood (who was shot and killed by Andrew Leopold near Dam No. 4 on November 19th. (The refugees) declared that every Southern man’s house should be burned down. – Gallaher in “The Shepherdstown Register.”

MLH:
The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed.

21_WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY
WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY:

MLH recalled:
1863 still finds our town disputed territory and a veritable “deserted village” – old men, women, and children with a very few Union men . . . In time of war when both armies have fallen back, a town presents a most desolate and forlorn appearance-the old people, women and children have no definite plans. They stand about in groups writing and talking of the latest battle or the expected skirmishes. Their homes are places to retire from inclement weather rather than to adorn – the table to satisfy hunger rather than the delightful board where sweet companionship mingled with health-giving food.

No systematic housekeeping, no aim, no object in performing any household duties. All energy was concentrated in doing for the soldiers. “When our boys come home we will do thus and so” was the oft repeated phrase. Sometimes at the dead of night the report of a pistol shot would warn us that the rebels were in town. But when daylight came we saw only the blue coats patrolling the streets, and they would leave as mysteriously as the rebels.

22_THE SIDETRACKED MISSION
THE SIDETRACKED MISSION:

23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked
May – 1863 – Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

24_Raider Andrew Leopold
NOTE Raider Andrew Leopold, whose sister, Sally Zittle, was a friend of Mary Entler, had been captured in late April, 1863 near Berryville and taken to a jail, awaiting trail for murder and other crimes.- JS

MLH:
A beautiful May morning, balmy air waiting the perfume of flowers over the country submerged in war. Sparkling dew drops resting in the bosom of such blossoms like tiny tear drops-weeping for the sad hearts made sad by war. God sends beautiful days in war as well as peace- we must remember that.

A young prepossessing girl introduced herself to me on this May morning as a sister of Andrew Leopold. She told me her brother had been captured by the Yankees and was confined in Fort McHenry, MD, and that the entreaties of her widowed mother had induced her to try to get through the Federal lines to have an interview with (Confederate) General J.E.B. Stuart in regard to having her brother exchanged as a prisoner of war. . . She had been sent to me by a southern woman who knew I had carried letters through to Charles Town and thought I would accompany the young lady to that place, and acquaint her with friends who would assist her through the lines. I hesitated a moment and she said with tears that his mother had a message from Baltimore that if some powerful influence was not brought to bear immediately that her brother would be executed as a guerilla. That decided the matter.

We started off in a one horse carriage for Charles Town. She as a traveler was attired in a brown suit with a cape to match trimmed with quilling around it and a brown straw hat with a veil. I was to spend the day only and was dressed in a blue “Dolly Varden” pattern dress, blue silk bonnet with wide turn over cuffs and concealed in the lining of these cuffs were slips of paper with names of prominent Southern sympathizers who we were to call upon for any assistance. Before starting we concluded it would be better to go under fictitious names – she as Lucy Hamilton, and I as Louise Hamilton, her cousin. And with hearts filled with hope we started off that bright May morning on our errand of mercy.

Charles Town was reached in good time. We stopped where we were directed at Mrs. L’s and urged for safety to stay all night here-Lucy to start next morning southward and I to return home would arouse no suspicion. The next morning was quite as beautiful and arrangements were completed when I found she was getting timid about starting off alone. She entreated me to go just as far as Berryville and then she thought she would feel brave enough to travel alone. It was a big undertaking for two young girls as the country was then all excitement and confusion. I finally agreed to go to Berryville. We knew exactly where to stop and whom to see. All was planned before starting from home. I will never forget how beautiful Berryville looked the morning we drove up to the hotel. It was a village embowered in beautiful green trees, blooming flowers. The bees humming in the nectar-laden flowers produced that lazy, peaceful quiet that is so soothing to tired nerves. We made our arrangements with the proprietor and took a stroll through the pretty, cool looking streets.

We met Union soldiers and plenty of them but we did not feel any fear of our plans failing. In the evening we called upon the family next to the hotel and had music until late that night. Next morning while arranging to separate we were visited by a Yankee officer saying he wished to know here were were going, and that we must take the oath. At first we refused to take the oath but when we consented to take it he would not let us, but placed us under arrest. What a frustrating of all our plans. How my heart ached for that poor girl. How she had built her hopes on securing the release of her brother on this venture.

Under arrest by the Federals, Gen. Milroy flabbergasted:

25_head-quarters of General Milroy
MLH:
Winchester reached, we were taken to the head-quarters of General Milroy where we found women, young and old, proud and defiant, now arguing their claims and proclaiming their grievances. One delicate, forlorn-looking widow relating to the General how his men, the Yankees, had taken her cows, her only means of support for her children. He turned from her quickly to my friend and me – if there had been the least disposition on my part to be humble – his exclamation put that feeling to flight and aroused a very rebellious state of mind. “What in the devil are you doing here? If it were not for the women running around the country we would not have so much trouble.” My companion started up with surprise. “General, we did not want to come here. We did not start for this place. Your officers brought us here.” He ran fingers through his mass of snow white hair already standing straight up like the quills of a porcupine and our of the audience chamber he strode without another word. He presented a fine physique, tall, well-proportioned, erect in carriage, a wealth of snow-white hair which suggested from its stand-up appearance that his fingers had a fashion of roaming there when troubles were to be, and plans and problems of great magnitude to be wrought out.

26_FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY
FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY:

June – 1863:

We were soon before the Provost Marshall at Martinsburg awaiting his orders. Next morning we were taken to General Kelly at Harper’s Ferry to await further orders. We were assigned to the best boarding house in the town adjoining the General’s headquarters where a great many of the officers boarded. We had a guard to watch our movements and prevent our escape if we thought of anything of the kind. We were allowed to walk around the town accompanied by the guard and sometimes were invited by officers, to whom we were introduced, to attend concerts and places of amusements but the guard invariably followed behind to the disgust of our gallants. Lucy and I ignored the guard altogether. We did not care how tired he became running over the old hills of Harper’s Ferry after us and many were the taunts and comments we overheard about “secesh” (Confederate-sympathcizing) prisoners.

“Miranda!” and the voice startled us – for it came from under the ground – a cottage, vine-clad and embowered in trees and bushes right under our feet on the slope of a hill. (The voice then said: “Here comes the two ‘secesh’ prisoners again trailing that poor tired guard after them as unusual. He looks like he is ready to drop. Much I would follow behind them over these hills.” She lived there under the hill with her beautiful daughter. She had lots and lots of beautiful flowers but not one would she give us after we humbled ourselves to ask for one because we were rebels.

At Harper’s Ferry with your five mountains, your bright Potomac, your smiling languid Shenandoah, your historic Jefferson’s Rock and romantic stone steps leading to the temple of God – St. Peter’s Church. In the yard of this church, high above the streets and houses of Harper’s Ferry, the Fifth New York Regiment Band discoursed sweet music every Sunday evening of the six weeks Lucy and I were prisoners. The sweet strains of the “Mocking Bird” as only Henry Frunkenfield could render them, echoed from Loudoun Heights across the great Shenandoah over the beautiful rock-ribbed Potomac of Maryland Heights, back again the mountain breezes wafted them though the streets and windows as if a hundred mocking birds were trilling their soul-felt song.

As a piece of fun, we were dressed in fantastic costumes, slipped down a stairway, of which the General had no knowledge to the kitchen, to dance for the cook and her black “Topsy”. The guard was told that we were about to make our escape. He hunted the house over for his prisoners and when he found us he did not recognize us for some time, our disguise was so complete. Two guards questioned us until they were finally convinced that we were not attempting an escape.

Sabbath days and week days were all the same at Harper’s Ferry during the war. The soldiers and citizens would promenade the streets. The crowds would send forth their martial airs, dignified and soul-stirring also their merry dance tunes. But this one Sabbath day seemed so different from all others that we had spent at that place. The day was declining and from the description of an Italian sunset, I think the sunset of this evening far surpassed any such Italian scene. The golden rays touched the tree tops and they looked like burnished gold. The strains of music came from the high rocks where St. Peter’s Church rests peacefully. Darts and streaks of gold tips of trees on the mountain tops – the birds twitter and call to their mates in low tones. There is a hush as if all nature were bowed in silent prayer as the twilight settles over the valley. The beauty of this Sabbath will never fade from my memory. It was my last one there as a prisoner. The stillness was soon changed to wild confusion and excitement.

Mary Entler Jumps Sides:

MLH:
I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in June, 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson.

MLH:
late August, 1864 – afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph Entler was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers.

27_PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES
PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES:

MLH married on February 15, 1865 in Frederick, Maryland Walter L. Herrington, a ticket-agent on the B&O Railroad at Harper’s Ferry.

1870:
They lived in her parents’ home of Wingerd Cottage, her parents having been forcibly retired from inn-keeping. Mary’s husband worked as a photographer then, that same year, died an untimely death.

1910: MLH had a dry goods and milliners shop on the south side of German Street.

1914: Mary Herrington paid in trust to George Beltzhoover the remaining western half of the lot of the once Great Western Hotel for $400, a sum to be paid to Nellie M. Entler. – December 5, 1914, Deed Book 111, p. 505. – Jefferson County Clerk.

1920:
Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller, and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.

On June 20th MLH sold the dual-lot Great Western Inn to relative Harry T. Licklider on the condition that she could still live in the inn her natural life with her brother, “the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” Two years later Licklider felt in arrears with the Swift Corporation and was sued and forced to sell the Great Western lands to pay off the debts. So the inn was gone from the family but MLH could literally live there, literally, on borrowed time.

She recalled:
Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War.

1930:
28_Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old
Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about $4,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Herrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.

1932:
Mary Louise Herrington died March 27, 1932, having given much of these recollections to Mary A. Licklider, a descendant of Mary’s brother, Cato Moore Entler. Her marker is in Elmwood Cemetery. That summer, the new owner of the Great Western began massive alterations and reductions.

Posted by Jim Surkamp on 2014-07-04 12:51:53

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23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

Script below – Read with Images Sequenced in the Script – JS

The Song of Mary Entler by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com/?p=13488 7888 words

The Song of Mary Entler Herrington by Jim Surkamp

1_The_Song_of_Mary_Entler
The Song of Mary Louise Entler Herrington (1840-1932)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

CHAPTERETTES
Prelude
Flag Dangerous:
Carry the Secret Mail:
The Sad Fate of the Great Western:
A Wartime Shepherdstown Each Day:
A Sidetracked Mission:
“Fraternizing” With the Enemy:
Peacetime – Eternal Tide of Memories:
The Eyes of Age:

About the end of the heydays of a great inn; about the innkeeper’s feisty, adventurous – amorous – young daughter during the Civil War who lived to tell about it and see her family’s inn perish

PRELUDE:

2_The 1850s in Shepherdstown
The 1850s in Shepherdstown: Good Times for Joseph and Mary Entler

3_The Entlers boarded travelers
The Entlers boarded travelers and stabled their teams by the score in their Great Western Inn on Shepherdstown’s German Street.

As Mary Louise Entler Herrington (hereafter “MLH”) told it:
After my father bought it in 1809, he hung a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house.

4_In the middle of the sign
In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘JOS. ENTLER”.

For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back. All these white-covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

The house was a quaint, 52-foot-long weatherboard house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or (carriage stepping stones).

The dining room was 34-feet-long. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five, four-horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River.

5_The large fireplace was in the kitchen
The large fireplace was in the kitchen that also had the cranes and pothooks and hangers.

Seventeen rooms were in the house and many also had large old-fashioned fireplaces and were finished with high-paneled mantelpieces.

In the 1850s children remembered the fancy carriages, with many horses pulling, making the smart, sharp turn from the main streeet to the lane leading to the rear stables.

6_lane leading to the rear stables
All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent.

Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingerd Cottage in 1858 and leased out the Great Western. Then that all ended – and, so did the Great Western.

FLAG DANGEROUS:

7_Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance
Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance – and several friends sat in chairs in the big hall of Wingerd Cottage sewing . . and sewing – ripping stars from an American flag mailed to them from New Orleans, that once waved from a ship of Rezin Davis Shepherd’s, as he perhaps thought such a flag might be more trouble to have in New Orleans, as the new war boiled over and Louisiana seceded from the Union in early 1861.

8_Mary Entler Herrington retold her past
Mary Licklider, a niece, recalled how Mary Entler Herrington retold her past before dying in 1932:

A U.S. flag, probably made of wool bunting fabric was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr.

9_Rezin Shepherd
Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then.

10_Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage
My father Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete.

11_It was very tedious to rip every seam
It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting.

12_Every star was ripped from the blue field
Every star was ripped from the blue field, and

13_then to sew all the red together
then to sew all the red together

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red
and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red.

15_Of course we had a surplus of stars
Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young.

After many weeks of work, the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. (Mary’s brother – Cato Moore Entler – was with Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

MLH recalled an investigation in the fall of 1861:

16_I heard the tramp of cavalry
I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by “Yankee” cavalry.

Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it.

I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide with deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet.

17_My door was pushed open
My door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue-striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery.

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas, the 30th of October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia infantry regiment that the unit reportedly carried into battle at First Manassas/Bull Run, but was smuggled back to the Rutherfords in Charles Town.

CARRY THE SECRET MAIL:

18_Carry_Secret_Mail
March, 1862

MLH recalled:
19_We collected all letters and concealed them
We collected all letters and concealed them by carefully sewing them between the ruching and dress. It required neatness and patience to make the work look innocent of anything contraband. We started on our march one bright beautiful morning but the roads being soft and muddy and we being not yet accustomed to marching could not get over much ground as rapidly as Stonewall Jackson’s men. The first night was spent at the home of Mr. Foley where another mail was collected. Another bright morning blessed our errand and when the purple shades of evening were gathering in the west we entered Charles Town as leisurely and passed the Union soldiers as indifferently as though we were out for an evening stroll. What a triumph it would have been for them to have secured that mail; how they would have gloated over every sacred sentence in those letters. My heart thrilled with fear at the thought although apparently so indifferent to their presence.

20_THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL
THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL:

December 26, 1862: The 12th Pennsylvania cavalry – The Bull Run Racers – crossed over the river ford into town and the (Federal-sympathcizing) refugees all came back from Maryland with a fire in their eyes and revenge for Mort Cookus’ blood (who was shot and killed by Andrew Leopold near Dam No. 4 on November 19th. (The refugees) declared that every Southern man’s house should be burned down. – Gallaher in “The Shepherdstown Register.”

MLH:
The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed.

21_WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY
WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY:

MLH recalled:
1863 still finds our town disputed territory and a veritable “deserted village” – old men, women, and children with a very few Union men . . . In time of war when both armies have fallen back, a town presents a most desolate and forlorn appearance-the old people, women and children have no definite plans. They stand about in groups writing and talking of the latest battle or the expected skirmishes. Their homes are places to retire from inclement weather rather than to adorn – the table to satisfy hunger rather than the delightful board where sweet companionship mingled with health-giving food.

No systematic housekeeping, no aim, no object in performing any household duties. All energy was concentrated in doing for the soldiers. “When our boys come home we will do thus and so” was the oft repeated phrase. Sometimes at the dead of night the report of a pistol shot would warn us that the rebels were in town. But when daylight came we saw only the blue coats patrolling the streets, and they would leave as mysteriously as the rebels.

22_THE SIDETRACKED MISSION
THE SIDETRACKED MISSION:

23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked
May – 1863 – Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

24_Raider Andrew Leopold
NOTE Raider Andrew Leopold, whose sister, Sally Zittle, was a friend of Mary Entler, had been captured in late April, 1863 near Berryville and taken to a jail, awaiting trail for murder and other crimes.- JS

MLH:
A beautiful May morning, balmy air waiting the perfume of flowers over the country submerged in war. Sparkling dew drops resting in the bosom of such blossoms like tiny tear drops-weeping for the sad hearts made sad by war. God sends beautiful days in war as well as peace- we must remember that.

A young prepossessing girl introduced herself to me on this May morning as a sister of Andrew Leopold. She told me her brother had been captured by the Yankees and was confined in Fort McHenry, MD, and that the entreaties of her widowed mother had induced her to try to get through the Federal lines to have an interview with (Confederate) General J.E.B. Stuart in regard to having her brother exchanged as a prisoner of war. . . She had been sent to me by a southern woman who knew I had carried letters through to Charles Town and thought I would accompany the young lady to that place, and acquaint her with friends who would assist her through the lines. I hesitated a moment and she said with tears that his mother had a message from Baltimore that if some powerful influence was not brought to bear immediately that her brother would be executed as a guerilla. That decided the matter.

We started off in a one horse carriage for Charles Town. She as a traveler was attired in a brown suit with a cape to match trimmed with quilling around it and a brown straw hat with a veil. I was to spend the day only and was dressed in a blue “Dolly Varden” pattern dress, blue silk bonnet with wide turn over cuffs and concealed in the lining of these cuffs were slips of paper with names of prominent Southern sympathizers who we were to call upon for any assistance. Before starting we concluded it would be better to go under fictitious names – she as Lucy Hamilton, and I as Louise Hamilton, her cousin. And with hearts filled with hope we started off that bright May morning on our errand of mercy.

Charles Town was reached in good time. We stopped where we were directed at Mrs. L’s and urged for safety to stay all night here-Lucy to start next morning southward and I to return home would arouse no suspicion. The next morning was quite as beautiful and arrangements were completed when I found she was getting timid about starting off alone. She entreated me to go just as far as Berryville and then she thought she would feel brave enough to travel alone. It was a big undertaking for two young girls as the country was then all excitement and confusion. I finally agreed to go to Berryville. We knew exactly where to stop and whom to see. All was planned before starting from home. I will never forget how beautiful Berryville looked the morning we drove up to the hotel. It was a village embowered in beautiful green trees, blooming flowers. The bees humming in the nectar-laden flowers produced that lazy, peaceful quiet that is so soothing to tired nerves. We made our arrangements with the proprietor and took a stroll through the pretty, cool looking streets.

We met Union soldiers and plenty of them but we did not feel any fear of our plans failing. In the evening we called upon the family next to the hotel and had music until late that night. Next morning while arranging to separate we were visited by a Yankee officer saying he wished to know here were were going, and that we must take the oath. At first we refused to take the oath but when we consented to take it he would not let us, but placed us under arrest. What a frustrating of all our plans. How my heart ached for that poor girl. How she had built her hopes on securing the release of her brother on this venture.

Under arrest by the Federals, Gen. Milroy flabbergasted:

25_head-quarters of General Milroy
MLH:
Winchester reached, we were taken to the head-quarters of General Milroy where we found women, young and old, proud and defiant, now arguing their claims and proclaiming their grievances. One delicate, forlorn-looking widow relating to the General how his men, the Yankees, had taken her cows, her only means of support for her children. He turned from her quickly to my friend and me – if there had been the least disposition on my part to be humble – his exclamation put that feeling to flight and aroused a very rebellious state of mind. “What in the devil are you doing here? If it were not for the women running around the country we would not have so much trouble.” My companion started up with surprise. “General, we did not want to come here. We did not start for this place. Your officers brought us here.” He ran fingers through his mass of snow white hair already standing straight up like the quills of a porcupine and our of the audience chamber he strode without another word. He presented a fine physique, tall, well-proportioned, erect in carriage, a wealth of snow-white hair which suggested from its stand-up appearance that his fingers had a fashion of roaming there when troubles were to be, and plans and problems of great magnitude to be wrought out.

26_FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY
FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY:

June – 1863:

We were soon before the Provost Marshall at Martinsburg awaiting his orders. Next morning we were taken to General Kelly at Harper’s Ferry to await further orders. We were assigned to the best boarding house in the town adjoining the General’s headquarters where a great many of the officers boarded. We had a guard to watch our movements and prevent our escape if we thought of anything of the kind. We were allowed to walk around the town accompanied by the guard and sometimes were invited by officers, to whom we were introduced, to attend concerts and places of amusements but the guard invariably followed behind to the disgust of our gallants. Lucy and I ignored the guard altogether. We did not care how tired he became running over the old hills of Harper’s Ferry after us and many were the taunts and comments we overheard about “secesh” (Confederate-sympathcizing) prisoners.

“Miranda!” and the voice startled us – for it came from under the ground – a cottage, vine-clad and embowered in trees and bushes right under our feet on the slope of a hill. (The voice then said: “Here comes the two ‘secesh’ prisoners again trailing that poor tired guard after them as unusual. He looks like he is ready to drop. Much I would follow behind them over these hills.” She lived there under the hill with her beautiful daughter. She had lots and lots of beautiful flowers but not one would she give us after we humbled ourselves to ask for one because we were rebels.

At Harper’s Ferry with your five mountains, your bright Potomac, your smiling languid Shenandoah, your historic Jefferson’s Rock and romantic stone steps leading to the temple of God – St. Peter’s Church. In the yard of this church, high above the streets and houses of Harper’s Ferry, the Fifth New York Regiment Band discoursed sweet music every Sunday evening of the six weeks Lucy and I were prisoners. The sweet strains of the “Mocking Bird” as only Henry Frunkenfield could render them, echoed from Loudoun Heights across the great Shenandoah over the beautiful rock-ribbed Potomac of Maryland Heights, back again the mountain breezes wafted them though the streets and windows as if a hundred mocking birds were trilling their soul-felt song.

As a piece of fun, we were dressed in fantastic costumes, slipped down a stairway, of which the General had no knowledge to the kitchen, to dance for the cook and her black “Topsy”. The guard was told that we were about to make our escape. He hunted the house over for his prisoners and when he found us he did not recognize us for some time, our disguise was so complete. Two guards questioned us until they were finally convinced that we were not attempting an escape.

Sabbath days and week days were all the same at Harper’s Ferry during the war. The soldiers and citizens would promenade the streets. The crowds would send forth their martial airs, dignified and soul-stirring also their merry dance tunes. But this one Sabbath day seemed so different from all others that we had spent at that place. The day was declining and from the description of an Italian sunset, I think the sunset of this evening far surpassed any such Italian scene. The golden rays touched the tree tops and they looked like burnished gold. The strains of music came from the high rocks where St. Peter’s Church rests peacefully. Darts and streaks of gold tips of trees on the mountain tops – the birds twitter and call to their mates in low tones. There is a hush as if all nature were bowed in silent prayer as the twilight settles over the valley. The beauty of this Sabbath will never fade from my memory. It was my last one there as a prisoner. The stillness was soon changed to wild confusion and excitement.

Mary Entler Jumps Sides:

MLH:
I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in June, 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson.

MLH:
late August, 1864 – afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph Entler was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers.

27_PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES
PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES:

MLH married on February 15, 1865 in Frederick, Maryland Walter L. Herrington, a ticket-agent on the B&O Railroad at Harper’s Ferry.

1870:
They lived in her parents’ home of Wingerd Cottage, her parents having been forcibly retired from inn-keeping. Mary’s husband worked as a photographer then, that same year, died an untimely death.

1910: MLH had a dry goods and milliners shop on the south side of German Street.

1914: Mary Herrington paid in trust to George Beltzhoover the remaining western half of the lot of the once Great Western Hotel for $400, a sum to be paid to Nellie M. Entler. – December 5, 1914, Deed Book 111, p. 505. – Jefferson County Clerk.

1920:
Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller, and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.

On June 20th MLH sold the dual-lot Great Western Inn to relative Harry T. Licklider on the condition that she could still live in the inn her natural life with her brother, “the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” Two years later Licklider felt in arrears with the Swift Corporation and was sued and forced to sell the Great Western lands to pay off the debts. So the inn was gone from the family but MLH could literally live there, literally, on borrowed time.

She recalled:
Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War.

1930:
28_Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old
Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about $4,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Herrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.

1932:
Mary Louise Herrington died March 27, 1932, having given much of these recollections to Mary A. Licklider, a descendant of Mary’s brother, Cato Moore Entler. Her marker is in Elmwood Cemetery. That summer, the new owner of the Great Western began massive alterations and reductions.

Posted by Jim Surkamp on 2014-07-04 12:38:01

Tagged:

Img449915nx2

Img449915nx2

From the Official Programme

THE NATIONAL COMMEMORATION OF THE CENTENARY OF THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN AND ANZAC DAY AT THE CENOTAPH, WHITEHALL, LONDON
HOSTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE HIGH COMMISSIONS OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND IN LONDON

On 25 April 1915 Allied soldiers landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey in one of the most ambitious amphibious assaults in history.

More than 550,000 soldiers from Britain, Ireland, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian sub-continent, Canada and Sri Lanka waged this historic campaign, including 400,000 from Britain alone. 58,000 Allied servicemen and 87,000 from Turkey died in this campaign.

ANZAC Day was established by Australia and New Zealand as an annual day of commemoration to remember their servicemen who died in Gallipoli. The first ANZAC Day march in London took place on 25 April 1916. ANZAC Day has been commemorated in London on 25 April every year since then.

ORDER OF SERVICE

11:00 Big Ben strikes the hour
Two minutes’ silence

The Last Post Sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

Reading by Michael Toohey, age 22, descendant of Private Thomas Toohey, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, killed in action at V beach on 25 April 1915, aged 22.

The Fallen by Laurence Binyon, 4th verse, published in The Times on 21 September 1914

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: age shall not weary them nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning, we will remember them.
All: We will remember them.

Laying of Wreaths

After Her Majesty The Queen has laid a wreath the Massed Bands will play Elegy (1915) – in memoriam Rupert Brooke – by F S Kelly (1881–1916) and Largo by G F Handel (1685–1759).

Her Majesty The Queen lays the first wreath followed by:
The Right Honourable David Cameron, Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Senator the Honourable George Brandis QC, Attorney General, Commonwealth of Australia
The Right Honourable David Carter MP, 29th Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives
A representative of the Republic of Turkey
The Right Honourable Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The Right Honourable Michael Fallon, Secretary of State for Defence
The Right Honourable Sajid Javid, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport
The Right Honourable Hugo Swire, Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Helen Grant, Minister for the First World War Centenary
Dr Andrew Murrison, Prime Minister’s Special Representative for the First World War Centenary
The Right Honourable Ed Miliband, Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition
Keith Brown MSP, Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure, Investment and Cities, Scottish Government
The Right Honourable Carwyn Jones, First Minister, Welsh Government
A representative of the Northern Ireland Executive
Lieutenant General Sir Gerry Berragan KBE CB, Adjutant General
Air Marshal Dick Garwood CB CBE DFC, Director General Defence Safety Authority
Vice Admiral Sir Philip Jones KCB, Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
Lieutenant General John Caligari AO DSC, Chief Capability Development Group, Australian Defence Force
Brigadier Antony Hayward ONZ, Head New Zealand Defence Staff, New Zealand High Commission
Colonel Ömer Özkan, Air Attaché, Embassy of Turkey
A representative of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Steven Vandeput, Minister of Defence of Belgium
His Excellency Gordon Campbell, High Commissioner for Canada
A representative of the Republic of France
A representative of the Federal Republic of Germany
His Excellency Dr Ranjan Mathai, High Commissioner for the Republic of India
His Excellency Daniel Mulhall, Ambassador of Ireland to the United Kingdom
His Excellency The Honourable Joseph Muscat, Prime Minister of the Republic of Malta
A representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
His Excellency Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
His Excellency The Honourable Peter O’Neill CMG MP, Prime Minister of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
His Excellency Mr Obed Mlaba, High Commissioner for the Republic of South Africa
A representative of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sonata Tupou, Acting High Commissioner for the Kingdom of Tonga
The Honourable Bronwyn Bishop MP, Speaker to the Australian House of Representatives
Bill Muirhead AM, Agent-General for South Australia
Ken Smith, Trade Commissioner for Europe and Agent General for UK at Trade & Investment Queensland
Kevin Skipworth CVO, Agent-General for Western Australia
Ian Matterson, Representative of the Premier of Tasmania
Mathew Erbs, on behalf of the Agent-General for Victoria
Gary Dunn, Deputy Commonwealth Secretary General
General The Lord Richards of Herstmonceux GCB CBE DSO, Deputy Grand President, British Commonwealth Ex-Servicemen’s League
Vice Admiral Peter Wilkinson CB CVO, National President, the Royal British Legion
Right Honourable The Viscount Slim OBE DL, Returned and Services League of Australia
Colonel Andrew Martin ONZM, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services Association
Lindsay Birrell, CEO, London Legacy
Captain Christopher Fagan DL, Chairman, The Gallipoli Association
The Honourable Mrs Ros Kelly AO, Commissioner, Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Sue Pillar, Director of Volunteer Support, Soldiers’ And Sailors’ Families Association (SSAFA)
Captain Jim Conybeare, Master, The Honourable Company of Master Mariners
Lyn Hopkins, Director General, The Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship
Sir Anthony Figgis KCVO CMG, Chairman, Royal Overseas League

Reveille sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

THE PRAYERS

Prayer by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

God our Father, we come together today to honour all those who gave themselves with great courage in service and sacrifice for their country in the Gallipoli Campaign. We pray that their example may continue to inspire us to strive for the common good, that we may build up the harmony and freedom for which they fought and died.

Help us O Lord, to lift our eyes above the torment of this broken world, and strengthen our resolve to work for peace and justice, and for the relief of want and suffering. As we honour the past, may we put our faith in your future; for you are the source of life and hope, now and forever. Amen.

Hymn led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

I Vow To Thee My Country

All:
I vow to thee, my country, all earthly things above,
Entire and whole and perfect, the service of my love;
The love that asks no question, the love that stands the test,
That lays upon the altar the dearest and the best;
The love that never falters, the love that pays the price,
The love that makes undaunted the final sacrifice.
I heard my country calling, away across the sea,
Across the waste of waters, she calls and calls to me.
Her sword is girded at her side, her helmet on her head,
And around her feet are lying the dying and the dead;
I hear the noise of battle, the thunder of her guns;
I haste to thee, my mother, a son among thy sons.
And there’s another country, I’ve heard of long ago,
Most dear to them that love her, most great to them that know;
We may not count her armies, we may not see her King;
Her fortress is a faithful heart, her pride is suffering;
And soul by soul and silently her shining bounds increase,
And her ways are ways of gentleness, and all her paths are peace.

Prayer read by Grace van Gageldonk (14 years old) from Australia

God of compassion and mercy, we remember with thanksgiving and sorrow, those whose lives in world wars and conflicts past and present, have been
given and taken away.
Enfold in your love, all who in bereavement, disability and pain, continue to suffer the consequences of fighting and terror; and guide and protect all those who support and sustain them. Amen.

National anthem Advance Australia Fair

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil,
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature’s gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history’s page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
‘Advance Australia Fair’.

Prayer read by Kathryn Cooper (11 years old) from New Zealand

God of hope, the source of peace and the refuge of all in distress, we remember those you have gathered from the storm of war into the everlasting peace of your presence; may that same peace calm our fears, bring reconciliation and justice to all peoples, and establish lasting harmony among the nations.

We pray for all members of the armed forces who strive for peace and fight for justice today; bless and keep their families and friends at home awaiting their return. Help us, who today remember the cost of war, to work for a better tomorrow, and bring us all, in the end, to the peace of your presence; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

National anthem God Defend New Zealand

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

E Ihowā _Atua,
O ngā _iwi mātou rā
Āta whakarangona;
Me aroha noa
Kia hua ko te pai;
Kia tau tō _atawhai;
Manaakitia mai
Aotearoa
God of Nations at Thy feet,
in the bonds of love we meet,
hear our voices, we entreat,
God defend our free land.
Guard Pacific’s triple star
from the shafts of strife and war,
make her praises heard afar,
God defend New Zealand.

Reading Atatürk’s message to bereaved pilgrims, 1934, read by Ecenur Bilgiç (14 years old) from Turkey

Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives…
You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace.

There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours…
You, the mothers, who sent their sons from faraway countries, wipe away your tears; your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace, after having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well.

National anthem İstiklal Marşı (The Independence March)

Led by Burak Gülşen from Turkey, accompanied by the Massed Bands

Korkma, sönmez bu şafaklarda yüzen al sancak;
Sönmeden yurdumun üstünde tüten en son ocak.
O benim milletimin yıldızıdır, parlayacak;
O benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak.
Çatma, kurban olayım, çehreni ey nazlı hilal!
Kahraman ırkıma bir gül! Ne bu şiddet, bu celal?
Sana olmaz dökülen kanlarımız sonra helal…
Hakkıdır, Hakk’a tapan, milletimin istiklal!
Fear not! For the crimson flag that flies at this dawn, shall not fade,
As long as the last fiery hearth that is ablaze in my country endures.
For that is the star of my nation, which will forever shine;
It is mine; and solely that of my valiant nation.
Frown not, I beseech you, oh thou coy crescent!
Come smile upon my heroic race! Why this rage, this fury?
The blood we shed for you shall not be blessed otherwise;
For independence is the absolute right of my God-worshipping nation.

Remembering Gallipoli a commemoration created by Michael McDermott

Music composed by Michael McDermott
Reading by James McDermott (17 years old) from the United Kingdom
The Attack at Dawn (May, 1915) by Leon Maxwell Gellert (1892–1977)

‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
They told us in the early afternoon.
We sit and wait the coming of the sun
We sit in groups, — grey groups that watch the moon.
We stretch our legs and murmur half in sleep
And touch the tips of bayonets and yarn.
Our hands are cold. They strangely grope and creep,
Tugging at ends of straps. We wait the dawn!
Some men come stumbling past in single file.
And scrape the trench’s side and scatter sand.
They trip and curse and go. Perhaps we smile.
We wait the dawn! … The dawn is close at hand!
A gentle rustling runs along the line.
‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
A hundred eyes are staring for the sign.
It’s coming! Look! … Our God’s own laughing sun!

Closing prayers by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

Eternal God,
from whom all thoughts of truth and peace proceed;
Kindle, we pray, in the hearts of all, the true love of peace
and guide with your pure and peaceable wisdom
those who take counsel for the nations of the world,
that in tranquillity your kingdom may go forward,
and all people may spend their days in security, freedom and peace;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Merciful God
we offer to you the fears in us
that have not yet been cast out by love:
may we accept the hope you have
placed in the hearts of all people,
and live lives of justice, courage and mercy;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Lord’s Prayer

All:
Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come, thy will be done;
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give is this day our daily bread.
And forgive is our trespasses,
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those that trespass against us.
And lead is not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom,
the power and the glory,
fro ver and ever. Amen.

The Blessing

God grant to the living grace, to the departed rest,
to the Church, the Queen, the Commonwealth and all people,
unity, peace and concord,
and to us and all God’s servants, life everlasting;
and the blessing of God almighty,
the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit,
be among you and remain with you always. Amen.

National anthem God Save the Queen

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

God save our gracious Queen,
Long live our noble Queen.
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us;
God save the Queen!

They Are At Rest by Sir Edward Elgar (1857–1934), sung by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral (unaccompanied)

THE MARCH PAST
Contingents from:
The Royal Navy
HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH
The Fleet Air Arm
The Submarine Service
Hybrid (HMS OCEAN, HMS ALBION,
Britannia Royal Naval College)
The Royal Marines
Maritime Reserves (Royal Navy
and Royal Marines Reserves)
Representatives from the Armed Forces of other countries who fought at Gallipoli
invited to join the March Past:
Australia
New Zealand
Canada
Turkey
India
Germany
Ireland
France
Bangladesh
Pakistan
South Africa
Papua New Guinea
Tonga
The Gallipoli Association
Naval Services Associations
The Royal Naval Association
The Royal Marines Association
Army Units and their Associations
The Royal Regiment of Artillery
The Royal Corps of Engineers
The Royal Regiment of Scotland
The Princess of Wales’ Royal Regiment
The Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment
The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers
The Royal Anglian Regiment
The Yorkshire Regiment
The Mercian Regiment
The Royal Welsh
The Royal Irish Regiment
The Royal Gurkha Rifles
The Rifles
The Royal Logistics Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Veterinary Corps
The Royal Yeomanry
The Royal Wessex Yeomanry
The Scottish and North Irish Yeomanry
The London Regiment
Court & City Yeomanry Association
In-Pensioners of the Royal Hospital Chelsea
The Turkish Air Force Band plays Marche Mustafa Kemal Atatürk by Fazıl Çağlayan
Followed by: Descendants of those whose ancestors were involved in the Gallipoli campaign and others who march past the Cenotaph every year to commemorate Anzac Day.

Posted by veryamateurish on 2015-04-29 04:42:58

Tagged: , United Kingdom , London , Westminster , Whitehall , Cenotaph , Remembrance , Commemoration , Centenary , Gallipoli , World War One , First World War , Turkey , Australia , New Zealand , ANZAC Day , ANZAC

Myanmar – Life At Inle Lake – Man With Water Buffaloe – 1bb

Myanmar - Life At Inle Lake - Man With Water Buffaloe - 1bb

The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. Today, it is also found in Europe, Australia, and some American countries. The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) native to Southeast Asia is considered a different species, but most likely represents the ancestor of the domestic water buffalo.

Two extant types of water buffalo are recognized based on morphological and behavioural criteria – the river buffalo of South Asia and further west to the Balkans, Egypt, and Italy, and the swamp buffalo, found from Assam in the west through Southeast Asia to the Yangtze valley of China in the east. The origins of the domestic water buffalo types are debated, although results of a phylogenetic study indicate that the swamp type may have originated in China and was domesticated about 4,000 years ago, while the river type may have originated from India and was domesticated about 5,000 years ago. Water buffalo were traded from the Indus Valley Civilisation to Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, 2500 BC by the Meluhhas. The seal of a scribe employed by an Akkadian king shows the sacrifice of water buffalo.

At least 130 million domestic water buffalo exist, and more human beings depend on them than on any other domestic animal. They are especially suitable for tilling rice fields, and their milk is richer in fat and protein than that of dairy cattle. The large feral population of northern Australia became established in the late 19th century, and smaller feral herds are in New Guinea, Tunisia, and northeastern Argentina. Feral herds are also present in New Britain, New Ireland, Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, and Uruguay.

CHARACTERISTICS
The skin of river buffalo is black, but some specimens may have dark, slate-coloured skin. Swamp buffalo have a grey skin at birth, but become slate blue later. Albinoids are present in some populations. River buffalo have comparatively longer faces, smaller girths, and bigger limbs than swamp buffalo. Their dorsal ridges extend further back and taper off more gradually. Their horns grow downward and backward, then curve upward in a spiral. Swamp buffalo are heavy-bodied and stockily built; the body is short and the belly large. The forehead is flat, the eyes prominent, the face short, and the muzzle wide. The neck is comparatively long, and the withers and croup are prominent. A dorsal ridge extends backward and ends abruptly just before the end of the chest. Their horns grow outward, and curve in a semicircle, but always remain more or less on the plane of the forehead. The tail is short, reaching only to the hocks. Height at withers is 129–133 cm for males, and 120–127 cm for females. They range in weight from 300–550 kg, but weights of over 1,000 kg have also been observed.

Tedong bonga is a black pied buffalo featuring a unique black and white colouration that is favoured by the Toraja of Sulawesi.

The swamp buffalo has 48 chromosomes; the river buffalo has 50 chromosomes. The two types do not readily interbreed, but fertile offspring can occur. Buffalo-cattle hybrids have not been observed to occur, and the embryos of such hybrids do not reach maturity in laboratory experiments.

The rumen of the water buffalo has important differences from that of other ruminants. It contains a larger population of bacteria, particularly the cellulolytic bacteria, lower protozoa, and higher fungi zoospores. In addition, higher rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and higher pH have been found as compared to those in cattle

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
River buffalo prefer deep water. Swamp buffalo prefer to wallow in mudholes which they make with their horns. During wallowing, they acquire a thick coating of mud. Both are well adapted to a hot and humid climate with temperatures ranging from 0 °C in the winter to 30 °C and greater in the summer. Water availability is important in hot climates, since they need wallows, rivers, or splashing water to assist in thermoregulation. Some breeds are adapted to saline seaside shores and saline sandy terrain.

DIET
Water buffalo thrive on many aquatic plants and during floods, will graze submerged, raising their heads above the water and carrying quantities of edible plants. They eat reeds (quassab), a giant reed (birdi), a kind of bulrush (kaulan), water hyacinth, and marsh grasses. Some of these plants are of great value to local peoples. Others, such as water hyacinth, are a major problem in some tropical valleys, and water buffalo may help to keep waterways clear.

Green fodders are used widely for intensive milk production and for fattening. Many fodder crops are conserved as hay, chaffed, or pulped. Fodders include alfalfa, berseem and bancheri, the leaves, stems or trimmings of banana, cassava, fodder beet, halfa, ipil-ipil and kenaf, maize, oats, pandarus, peanut, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, bagasse, and turnips. Citrus pulp and pineapple wastes have been fed safely to buffalo. In Egypt, whole sun-dried dates are fed to milk-buffalo up to 25% of the standard feed mixture.

REPRODUCTION
Swamp buffalo generally become reproductive at an older age than river breeds. Young males in Egypt, India, and Pakistan are first mated at about 3.0–3.5 years of age, but in Italy

they may be used as early as 2 years of age. Successful mating behaviour may continue until the animal is 12 years or even older. A good river male can impregnate 100 females in a year. A strong seasonal influence on mating occurs. Heat stress reduces libido

Although buffalo are polyoestrous, their reproductive efficiency shows wide variation throughout the year. Buffalo cows exhibit a distinct seasonal change in displaying oestrus, conception rate, and calving rate. The age at first oestrus of heifers varies between breeds from 13–33 months, but mating at the first oestrus is often infertile and usually deferred until they are 3 years old. Gestation lasts from 281–334 days, but most reports give a range between 300 and 320 days. Swamp buffalo carry their calves for one or two weeks longer than river buffalo. It is not rare to find buffalo that continue to work well at the age of 30, and instances of a working life of 40 years are recorded.

TAXONOMIC HISTORY
Carl Linnaeus first described the genus Bos and the water buffalo under the binomial Bubalis bubalus in 1758; the latter was known to occur in Asia and as a domestic form in Italy. Ellerman and Morrison-Scott treated the wild and domestic forms of the water buffalo as conspecifics whereas others treated them as different species. The nomenclatorial treatment of wild and domestic forms has been inconsistent and varies between authors and even within the works of single authors.

In March 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature achieved consistency in the naming of wild and domestic water buffalo by ruling that the scientific name Bubalus arnee is valid for the wild form. B. bubalis continues to be valid for the domestic form and applies also to feral populations.

DOMESTICATION AND BREEDING
Water buffalo were domesticated in India about 5000 years ago, and in China about 4000 years ago. Two types are recognized, based on morphological and behavioural criteria – the river buffalo of the Indian subcontinent and further west to the Balkans and Italy, and the swamp buffalo, found from Assam in the west through Southeast Asia to the Yangtze valley of China in the east. The present-day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from wild populations after the initial domestication events. Twenty-two breeds of the river type water buffalo are known, including Murrah, Nili-Ravi, Surti, Jafarabadi, Anatolian, Mediterranean, and Egyptian buffalo. China has a huge variety of buffalo genetic resources, comprising 16 local swamp buffalo breeds in various regions.

Results of mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that the two types were domesticated independently. Sequencing of cytochrome b genes of Bubalus species implies that the domestic buffalo originated from at least two populations, and that the river and the swamp types have differentiated at the full species level. The genetic distance between the two types is so large that a divergence time of about 1.7 million years has been suggested. The swamp type was noticed to have the closest relationship with the tamaraw.

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATIONS
The water buffalo population in the world is about 172 million.

IN ASIA
More than 95.8% of the world population of water buffalo are found in Asia including both river and swamp types. The water buffalo population in India numbered over 97.9 million head in 2003, representing 56.5% of the world population. They are primarily of the river type, with 10 well-defined breeds comprising Badhawari, Murrah, Nili-Ravi, Jafarabadi, Marathwada, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri, Toda, and Surti. Swamp buffalo occur only in small areas in the north-eastern part of the country and are not distinguished into breeds.

In 2003, the second-largest population lived in China, with 22.759 million head, all of the swamp type with breeds kept only in the lowlands, and other breeds kept only in the mountains; as of 2003, 3.2 million swamp-type carabao buffalo were in the Philippines, nearly three million swamp buffalo were in Vietnam, and 772,764 buffalo were in Bangladesh. About 750,000 head were estimated in Sri Lanka in 1997.

The water buffalo is the main dairy animal in Pakistan, with 23.47 million head in 2010. Of these, 76% are kept in the Punjab. The rest of them are mostly in the province of Sindh. Breeds used are Nili-Ravi, Kundi, and Azi Kheli. Karachi has the largest population of water buffalos for an area where fodder is not grown, consisting of 350,000 head kept mainly for milking.

In Thailand, the number of water buffalo dropped from more than 3 million head in 1996 to less than 1.24 million head in 2011. Slightly over 75% of them are kept in the country’s northeastern region. The statistics also indicate that by the beginning of 2012, less than one million were in the country, partly as a result of illegal shipments to neighboring countries where sales prices are higher than in Thailand.

Water buffalo are also present in the southern region of Iraq, in the marshes. These marshes were drained by Saddam Hussein in 1991 in an attempt to punish the south for the uprisings of 1991. Following 2003, and the fall of the Saddam regime, these lands were reflooded and a 2007 report in the provinces of Maysan and Thi Qar shows a steady increase in the number of water buffalo. The report puts the number at 40,008 head in those two provinces.

IN EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN
Water buffalo likely were introduced to Europe from India or other Oriental countries. To Italy they were introduced about the year 600 in the reign of the Longobard King Agilulf. As they appear in the company of wild horses, they probably were a present from the Khan of the Avars, a Turkic nomadic tribe that dwelt near the Danube River at the time. Sir H. Johnston knew of a herd of water buffalo presented by a King of Naples to the Bey of Tunis in the mid-19th century that had resumed the feral state in northern Tunis.

European buffalo are all of the river type and considered to be of the same breed named Mediterranean buffalo. In Italy, the Mediterranean type was particularly selected and is called Mediterranean Italian breed to distinguish it from other European breeds, which differ genetically. Mediterranean buffalo are also found in Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Kosovo, and the Republic of Macedonia, with a few hundred in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Hungary. Little exchange of breeding buffalo has occurred among countries, so each population has its own phenotypic features and performances. In Bulgaria, they were crossbred with the Indian Murrah breed, and in Romania, some were crossbred with Bulgarian Murrah. Populations in Turkey are of the Anatolian buffalo breed.

IN AUSTRALIA
Between 1824 and 1849, water buffalo were introduced into the Northern Territory from Timor, Kisar, and probably other islands in the Indonesian archipelago. In 1886, a few milking types were brought from India to Darwin. They have been the main grazing animals on the subcoastal plains and river basins between Darwin and Arnhem Land since the 1880s. In the early 1960s, an estimated population of 150,000 to 200,000 buffalo were living in the plains and nearby areas.

They became feral and are causing significant environmental damage. Buffalo are also found in the Top End. As a result, they were hunted in the Top End from 1885 until 1980. The commencement of the brucellosis and tuberculosis campaign (BTEC) resulted in a huge culling program to reduce buffalo herds to a fraction of the numbers that were reached in the 1980s. The BTEC was finished when the Northern Territory was declared free of the disease in 1997. Numbers dropped dramatically as a result of the campaign, but have since recovered to an estimated 150,000 animals across northern Australia in 2008.

During the 1950s, buffalo were hunted for their skins and meat, which was exported and used in the local trade. In the late 1970s, live exports were made to Cuba and continued later into other countries. Buffalo are now crossed with riverine buffalo in artificial insemination programs, and may be found in many areas of Australia. Some of these crossbreds are used for milk production. Melville Island is a popular hunting location, where a steady population up to 4,000 individuals exists. Safari outfits are run from Darwin to Melville Island and other locations in the Top End, often with the use of bush pilots. The horns, which can measure up to a record of 3.1 m tip-to-tip, are prized hunting trophies.

The buffalo have developed a different appearance from the Indonesian buffalo from which they descend. They live mainly in freshwater marshes and billabongs, and their territory range can be quite expansive during the wet season. Their only natural predators in Australia are adult saltwater crocodiles, with whom they share the billabongs, and dingoes, which have been known to prey on buffalo calves and occasionally adult buffalo when the dingoes are in large packs.

Buffalo were exported live to Indonesia until 2011, at a rate of about 3000 per year. After the live export ban that year, the exports dropped to zero, and had not resumed as of June 2013.

IN SOUTH AMERICA
Water buffalo were introduced into the Amazon River basin in 1895. They are now extensively used there for meat and dairy production. In 2005, the buffalo herd in the Brazilian Amazon stood at roughly 1.6 million head, of which 460,000 were located in the lower Amazon floodplain. Breeds used include Mediterranean from Italy, Murrah and Jafarabadi from India, and Carabao from the Philippines.

During the 1970s, small herds were imported to Costa Rica, Ecuador, Cayenne, Panama, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela.

In Argentina, many game ranches raise water buffalo for commercial hunting

IN NORTH AMERICA
In 1974, four water buffalo were imported to the United States from Guam to be studied at the University of Florida. In February 1978, the first herd arrived for commercial farming. Until 2002, only one commercial breeder was in the United States. Water buffalo meat is imported from Australia. Until 2011, water buffalo were raised in Gainesville, Florida, from young obtained from zoo overflow. They were used primarily for meat production, frequently sold as hamburger.[38] Other US ranchers use them for production of high-quality mozzarella cheese.

HUSBANDRY
The husbandry system of water buffalo depends on the purpose for which they are bred and maintained. Most of them are kept by people who work on small farms in family units. Their buffalo live in very close association with them, and are often their greatest capital asset. The women and girls in India generally look after the milking buffalo while the men and boys are concerned with the working animals. Throughout Asia, they are commonly tended by children who are often seen leading or riding their charges to wallowing places. Water buffalo are the ideal animals for work in the deep mud of paddy fields because of their large hooves and flexible foot joints. They are often referred to as "the living tractor of the East". It probably is possible to plough deeper with buffalo than with either oxen or horses. They are the most efficient and economical means of cultivation of small fields. In most rice-producing countries, they are used for threshing and for transporting the sheaves during the rice harvest. They provide power for oilseed mills, sugarcane presses, and devices for raising water. They are widely used as pack animals, and in India and Pakistan also for heavy haulage. In their invasions of Europe, the Turks used buffalo for hauling heavy battering rams. Their dung is used as a fertilizer, and as a fuel when dried.

Buffalo contribute 72 million tones of milk and three million tones of meat annually to world food, much of it in areas that are prone to nutritional imbalances. In India, river-type buffalo are kept mainly for milk production and for transport, whereas swamp-type buffalo are kept mainly for work and a small amount of milk.

DAIRY PRODUCTS
Water buffalo milk presents physicochemical features different from that of other ruminant species, such as a higher content of fatty acids and proteins. The physical and chemical parameters of swamp and river type water buffalo milk differ. Water buffalo milk contains higher levels of total solids, crude protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus, and slightly higher content of lactose compared with those of cow milk. The high level of total solids makes water buffalo milk ideal for processing into value-added dairy products such as cheese. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in milk ranged from 4.4 mg/g fat in September to 7.6 mg/g fat in June. Seasons and genetics may play a role in variation of CLA level and changes in gross composition of the water buffalo milk.

Water buffalo milk is processed into a large variety of dairy products:

– Cream churns much faster at higher fat levels and gives higher overrun than cow cream.
– Butter from water buffalo cream displays more stability than that from cow cream.
– Ghee from water buffalo milk has a different texture with a bigger grain size than ghee from cow milk.
– Heat-concentrated milk products in the Indian subcontinent include paneer, khoa, rabri, kheer and basundi.
– Fermented milk products include dahi, yogurt, and chakka.
– Whey is used for making ricotta and mascarpone in Italy, and alkarish in Syria and Egypt.
– Soft cheeses made include mozzarella in Italy, karish, mish, and domiati in Egypt, madhfor in Iraq, alghab in Syria, kesong puti in the Philippines, and vladeasa in Romania.
– The semihard cheese beyaz peynir is made in Turkey.
– Hard cheeses include braila in Romania, rahss in Egypt, white brine in Bulgaria, and akkawi in Syria.
– Watered-down buffalo milk is used as a cheaper alternative to regular milk.

MEAT AND SKIN PRODUCTS
Water buffalo meat, sometimes called "carabeef", is often passed off as beef in certain regions, and is also a major source of export revenue for India. In many Asian regions, buffalo meat is less preferred due to its toughness; however, recipes have evolved (rendang, for example) where the slow cooking process and spices not only make the meat palatable, but also preserve it, an important factor in hot climates where refrigeration is not always available.Their hides provide tough and useful leather, often used for shoes.

BONE AND HORN PRODUCTS
The bones and horns are often made into jewellery, especially earrings. Horns are used for the embouchure of musical instruments, such as ney and kaval.

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
Wildlife conservation scientists have started to recommend and use introduced populations of feral domestic water buffalo in far-away lands to manage uncontrolled vegetation growth in and around natural wetlands. Introduced water buffalo at home in such environs provide cheap service by regularly grazing the uncontrolled vegetation and opening up clogged water bodies for waterfowl, wetland birds, and other wildlife. Grazing water buffalo are sometimes used in Great Britain for conservation grazing, such as in Chippenham Fen National Nature Reserve. The buffalo can better adapt to wet conditions and poor-quality vegetation than cattle.

Currently, research is being conducted at the Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies to determine the levels of nutrients removed and returned to wetlands when water buffalo are used for wetland vegetation management.

However, in uncontrolled circumstances, water buffalo can cause environmental damage, such as trampling vegetation, disturbing bird and reptile nesting sites, and spreading exotic weeds.

RESEARCH
The world’s first cloned buffalo was developed by Indian scientists from National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The buffalo calf was named Samrupa. The calf did not survive more than a week, and died due to some genetic disorders. So, the scientists created another cloned buffalo a few months later, and named it Garima.

On 15 September 2007, the Philippines announced its development of Southeast Asia’s first cloned buffalo. The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), under the Department of Science and Technology in Los Baños, Laguna, approved this project. The Department of Agriculture’s Philippine Carabao Center (PCC) will implement cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer as a tool for genetic improvement in water buffalo. "Super buffalo calves" will be produced. There will be no modification or alteration of the genetic materials, as in genetically modified organisms.

On 1 January 2008, the Philippine Carabao Center in Nueva Ecija, per Filipino scientists, initiated a study to breed a super water buffalo that could produce 4 to 18 litres of milk per day using gene-based technology. Also, the first in vitro river buffalo was born there in 2004 from an in vitro-produced, vitrified embryo, named "Glory" after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Joseph Estrada’s most successful project as an opposition senator, the PCC was created through Republic Act 3707, the Carabao Act of 1992.

IN CULTURE
Some ethnic groups, such as Batak and Toraja in Indonesia and the Derung in China, use water buffalo or kerbau (called horbo in Batak or tedong in Toraja) as sacrificial animals at several festivals.

– Legend has it that the Chinese philosophical sage Laozi left China through the Han Gu Pass riding a water buffalo.
– According to Hindu lore, the god of death Yama, rides on a male water buffalo.
– The carabao subspecies is considered a national symbol in the Philippines.
– In Vietnam, water buffalo are often the most valuable possession of poor farmers: "Con trâu là đầu cơ nghiệp". They are treated as a member of the family: "Chồng cày, vợ cấy, con trâu đi bừa" ("The husband ploughs, the wife sows, water buffalo draws the rake") and are friends of the children. Children talk to their water buffalo, "Bao giờ cây lúa còn bông. Thì còn ngọn cỏ ngoài đồng trâu ăn." (Vietnamese children are responsible for grazing water buffalo. They feed them grass if they work laboriously for men.) In the old days, West Lake, Hà Nội, was named Kim Ngưu – Golden Water Buffalo.
– The Yoruban Orisha Oya (goddess of change) takes the form of a water buffalo.

FIGHTING FESTIVALS
– Pasungay Festival is held annually in the town of San Joaquin, Iloilo in the Philippines.
– Moh juj Water Buffalo fighting, is held every year in Bhogali Bihu in Assam. Ahotguri in Nagaon is famous for it.
– Do Son Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Vietnam, held each year on the ninth day of the eighth month of the lunar calendar at Do Son Township, Haiphong City in Vietnam, is one of the most popular Vietnam festivals and events in Haiphong City. The preparations for this buffalo fighting festival begin from the two to three months earlier. The competing buffalo are selected and methodically trained months in advance. It is a traditional festival of Vietnam attached to a Water God worshipping ceremony and the Hien Sinh custom to show martial spirit of the local people of Do Son, Haiphong.
– "Hai Luu" Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Vietnam, According to ancient records, the buffalo fighting in Hai Luu Commune has existed from the 2nd century B.C. General Lu Gia at that time, had the buffalo slaughtered to give a feast to the local people and the warriors, and organized buffalo fighting for amusement. Eventually, all the fighting buffalo will be slaughtered as tributes to the deities.
– "Ko Samui" Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Thailand, is a very popular event held on special occasions such as New Year’s Day in January, and Songkran in mid-April, this festival features head-wrestling bouts in which two male Asian water buffalo are pitted against one another. Unlike in Spanish Bullfighting, wherein bulls get killed while fighting sword-wielding men, Buffalo Fighting Festival held at Ko Samui, Thailand is fairly harmless contest. The fighting season varies according to ancient customs & ceremonies. The first Buffalo to turn and run away is considered the loser, the winning buffalo becomes worth several million baht. Ko Samui is an island in the Gulf of Thailand in the South China Sea, it is 700 km from Bangkok and is connected to it by regular flights.
– "Ma’Pasilaga Tedong" Water Buffalo Fighting Festival, in Tana Toraja Regency of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, is a very popular event where the Rambu Solo’ or a Burial Festival took place in Tana Toraja.

RACING FESTIVALS
Carabao Carroza Festival is being held annually every May in the town of Pavia, Iloilo, Philippines.
Kambala races of Karnataka, India, take place between December and March. The races are conducted by having the water buffalo (he buffalo) run in long parallel slushy ditches, where they are driven by men standing on wooden planks drawn by the buffalo. The objectives of the race are to finish first and to raise the water to the greatest height and also a rural sport. Kambala races are arranged with competition, as well as without competition and as a part of thanks giving (to god) in about 50 villages of coastal Karnataka.

In the Chonburi Province of Thailand, and in Pakistan, there are annual water buffalo races.

Chon Buri Water buffalo racing festival, Thailand In downtown Chonburi, 70 km south of Bangkok, at the annual water buffalo festival held in mid-October. About 300 buffalo race in groups of five or six, spurred on by bareback jockeys wielding wooden sticks, as hundreds of spectators cheer. The water buffalo has always played an important role in agriculture in Thailand. For farmers of Chon Buri Province, near Bangkok, it is an important annual festival, beginning in mid-October. It is also a celebration among rice farmers before the rice harvest. At dawn, farmers walk their buffalo through surrounding rice fields, splashing them with water to keep them cool before leading them to the race field. This amazing festival started over a hundred years ago when two men arguing about whose buffalo was the fastest ended up having a race between them. That’s how it became a tradition and gradually a social event for farmers who gathered from around the country in Chonburi to trade their goods. The festival also helps a great deal in preserving the number of buffalo, which have been dwindling at quite an alarming rate in other regions. Modern machinery is rapidly replacing buffalo in Thai agriculture. With most of the farm work mechanized, the buffalo-racing tradition has continued. Racing buffalo are now raised just to race; they do not work at all. The few farm buffalo which still do work are much bigger than the racers because of the strenuous work they perform. Farm buffalo are in the "Buffalo Beauty Pageant", a Miss Farmer beauty contest and a comic buffalo costume contest etc.. This festival perfectly exemplifies a favored Thai attitude to life — "sanuk," meaning fun.

Babulang Water buffalo racing festival, Sarawak, Malaysia, is the largest or grandest of the many rituals, ceremonies and festivals of the traditional Bisaya (Borneo) community of Limbang, Sarawak. Highlights are the Ratu Babulang competition and the Water buffalo races which can only be found in this town in Sarawak, Malaysia.
Vihear Suor village Water buffalo racing festival, in Cambodia, each year, people visit Buddhist temples across the country to honor their deceased loved ones during a 15-day period commonly known as the Festival of the Dead but in Vihear Suor village, about 35 km northeast of Cambodia, citizens each year wrap up the festival with a water buffalo race to entertain visitors and honour a pledge made hundreds of years ago. There was a time when many village cattle which provide rural Cambodians with muscle power to plough their fields and transport agricultural products died from an unknown disease. The villagers prayed to a spirit to help save their animals from the disease and promised to show their gratitude by holding a buffalo race each year on the last day of "P’chum Ben" festival as it is known in Cambodian. The race draws hundreds of spectators who come to see riders and their animals charge down the racing field, the racers bouncing up and down on the backs of their buffalo, whose horns were draped with colorful cloth.
Pothu puttu matsaram, Kerala, South India, is similar to Kambala races.

WIKIPEDIA

Posted by asienman on 2017-06-30 16:07:35

Tagged: , Myanmar , Inle Lake , Water Buffaloe , asienman-photography , asienman-photoart

St Magnus the Martyr, Lower Thames Street, City of London

St Magnus the Martyr, Lower Thames Street, City of London

What craziness is this, a day in that London on a weekday? Well, working one day last weekend, and another next weekend, meant I took a day in Lieu.

So there.

And top of my list of places to visit was St Magnus. This would be the fifth time I have tried to get inside, and the first since I wrote to the church asking whether they would be open a particular Saturday, and then any Saturday. Letters which were ignored

So, I walked out of Monument Station, down the hill there was St Magnus: would it be open?

It was, and inside it was a box, nay a treasure chest of delights.

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St Magnus the Martyr, London Bridge is a Church of England church and parish within the City of London. The church, which is located in Lower Thames Street near The Monument to the Great Fire of London,[1] is part of the Diocese of London and under the pastoral care of the Bishop of London and the Bishop of Fulham.[2] It is a Grade I listed building.[3] The rector uses the title "Cardinal Rector". [4]
St Magnus lies on the original alignment of London Bridge between the City and Southwark. The ancient parish was united with that of St Margaret, New Fish Street, in 1670 and with that of St Michael, Crooked Lane, in 1831.[5] The three united parishes retained separate vestries and churchwardens.[6] Parish clerks continue to be appointed for each of the three parishes.[7]
St Magnus is the guild church of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers and the Worshipful Company of Plumbers, and the ward church of the Ward of Bridge and Bridge Without. It is also twinned with the Church of the Resurrection in New York City.[8]
Its prominent location and beauty has prompted many mentions in literature.[9] In Oliver Twist Charles Dickens notes how, as Nancy heads for her secret meeting with Mr. Brownlow and Rose Maylie on London Bridge, "the tower of old Saint Saviour’s Church, and the spire of Saint Magnus, so long the giant-warders of the ancient bridge, were visible in the gloom". The church’s spiritual and architectural importance is celebrated in the poem The Waste Land by T. S. Eliot, who adds in a footnote that "the interior of St. Magnus Martyr is to my mind one of the finest among Wren’s interiors".[10] One biographer of Eliot notes that at first he enjoyed St Magnus aesthetically for its "splendour"; later he appreciated its "utility" when he came there as a sinner.

The church is dedicated to St Magnus the Martyr, earl of Orkney, who died on 16 April in or around 1116 (the precise year is unknown).[12] He was executed on the island of Egilsay having been captured during a power struggle with his cousin, a political rival.[13] Magnus had a reputation for piety and gentleness and was canonised in 1135. St. Ronald, the son of Magnus’s sister Gunhild Erlendsdotter, became Earl of Orkney in 1136 and in 1137 initiated the construction of St. Magnus Cathedral in Kirkwall.[14] The story of St. Magnus has been retold in the 20th century in the chamber opera The Martyrdom of St Magnus (1976)[15] by Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, based on George Mackay Brown’s novel Magnus (1973).

he identity of the St Magnus referred to in the church’s dedication was only confirmed by the Bishop of London in 1926.[16] Following this decision a patronal festival service was held on 16 April 1926.[17] In the 13th century the patronage was attributed to one of the several saints by the name of Magnus who share a feast day on 19 August, probably St Magnus of Anagni (bishop and martyr, who was slain in the persecution of the Emperor Decius in the middle of the 3rd century).[18] However, by the early 18th century it was suggested that the church was either "dedicated to the memory of St Magnus or Magnes, who suffer’d under the Emperor Aurelian in 276 [see St Mammes of Caesarea, feast day 17 August], or else to a person of that name, who was the famous Apostle or Bishop of the Orcades."[19] For the next century historians followed the suggestion that the church was dedicated to the Roman saint of Cæsarea.[20] The famous Danish archaeologist Professor Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae (1821–85) promoted the attribution to St Magnus of Orkney during his visit to the British Isles in 1846-7, when he was formulating the concept of the ‘Viking Age’,[21] and a history of London written in 1901 concluded that "the Danes, on their second invasion … added at least two churches with Danish names, Olaf and Magnus".[22] A guide to the City Churches published in 1917 reverted to the view that St Magnus was dedicated to a martyr of the third century,[23] but the discovery of St Magnus of Orkney’s relics in 1919 renewed interest in a Scandinavian patron and this connection was encouraged by the Rector who arrived in 1921

A metropolitan bishop of London attended the Council of Arles in 314, which indicates that there must have been a Christian community in Londinium by this date, and it has been suggested that a large aisled building excavated in 1993 near Tower Hill can be compared with the 4th-century Cathedral of St Tecla in Milan.[25] However, there is no archaeological evidence to suggest that any of the mediaeval churches in the City of London had a Roman foundation.[26] A grant from William I in 1067 to Westminster Abbey, which refers to the stone church of St Magnus near the bridge ("lapidee eccle sci magni prope pontem"), is generally accepted to be 12th century forgery,[27] and it is possible that a charter of confirmation in 1108-16 might also be a later fabrication.[28] Nonetheless, these manuscripts may preserve valid evidence of a date of foundation in the 11th century.

Archaeological evidence suggests that the area of the bridgehead was not occupied from the early 5th century until the early 10th century. Environmental evidence indicates that the area was waste ground during this period, colonised by elder and nettles. Following Alfred’s decision to reoccupy the walled area of London in 886, new harbours were established at Queenhithe and Billingsgate. A bridge was in place by the early 11th century, a factor which would have encouraged the occupation of the bridgehead by craftsmen and traders.[30] A lane connecting Botolph’s Wharf and Billingsgate to the rebuilt bridge may have developed by the mid-11th century. The waterfront at this time was a hive of activity, with the construction of embankments sloping down from the riverside wall to the river. Thames Street appeared in the second half of the 11th century immediately behind (north of) the old Roman riverside wall and in 1931 a piling from this was discovered during the excavation of the foundations of a nearby building. It now stands at the base of the church tower.[31] St Magnus was built to the south of Thames Street to serve the growing population of the bridgehead area[32] and was certainly in existence by 1128-33.[33]
The small ancient parish[34] extended about 110 yards along the waterfront either side of the old bridge, from ‘Stepheneslane’ (later Churchehawlane or Church Yard Alley) and ‘Oystergate’ (later called Water Lane or Gully Hole) on the West side to ‘Retheresgate’ (a southern extension of Pudding Lane) on the East side, and was centred on the crossroads formed by Fish Street Hill (originally Bridge Street, then New Fish Street) and Thames Street.[35] The mediaeval parish also included Drinkwater’s Wharf (named after the owner, Thomas Drinkwater), which was located immediately West of the bridge, and Fish Wharf, which was to the South of the church. The latter was of considerable importance as the fishmongers had their shops on the wharf. The tenement was devised by Andrew Hunte to the Rector and Churchwardens in 1446.[36] The ancient parish was situated in the South East part of Bridge Ward, which had evolved in the 11th century between the embankments to either side of the bridge.[37]
In 1182 the Abbot of Westminster and the Prior of Bermondsey agreed that the advowson of St Magnus should be divided equally between them. Later in the 1180s, on their presentation, the Archdeacon of London inducted his nephew as parson.

Between the late Saxon period and 1209 there was a series of wooden bridges across the Thames, but in that year a stone bridge was completed.[39] The work was overseen by Peter de Colechurch, a priest and head of the Fraternity of the Brethren of London Bridge. The Church had from early times encouraged the building of bridges and this activity was so important it was perceived to be an act of piety – a commitment to God which should be supported by the giving of alms. London’s citizens made gifts of land and money "to God and the Bridge".[40] The Bridge House Estates became part of the City’s jurisdiction in 1282.

Until 1831 the bridge was aligned with Fish Street Hill, so the main entrance into the City from the south passed the West door of St Magnus on the north bank of the river.[41] The bridge included a chapel dedicated to St Thomas Becket[42] for the use of pilgrims journeying to Canterbury Cathedral to visit his tomb.[43] The chapel and about two thirds of the bridge were in the parish of St Magnus. After some years of rivalry a dispute arose between the church and the chapel over the offerings given to the chapel by the pilgrims. The matter was resolved by the brethren of the chapel making an annual contribution to St Magnus.[44] At the Reformation the chapel was turned into a house and later a warehouse, the latter being demolished in 1757-58.
The church grew in importance. On 21 November 1234 a grant of land was made to the parson of St Magnus for the enlargement of the church.[45] The London eyre of 1244 recorded that in 1238 "A thief named William of Ewelme of the county of Buckingham fled to the church of St. Magnus the Martyr, London, and there acknowledged the theft and abjured the realm. He had no chattels."[46] Another entry recorded that "The City answers saying that the church of … St. Magnus the Martyr … which [is] situated on the king’s highway … ought to belong to the king and be in his gift".[47] The church presumably jutted into the road running to the bridge, as it did in later times.[48] In 1276 it was recorded that "the church of St. Magnus the Martyr is worth £15 yearly and Master Geoffrey de la Wade now holds it by the grant of the prior of Bermundeseie and the abbot of Westminster to whom King Henry conferred the advowson by his charter.

In 1274 "came King Edward and his wife [Eleanor] from the Holy Land and were crowned at Westminster on the Sunday next after the Feast of the Assumption of Our Lady [15 August], being the Feast of Saint Magnus [19 August]; and the Conduit in Chepe ran all the day with red wine and white wine to drink, for all such as wished."[50] Stow records that "in the year 1293, for victory obtained by Edward I against the Scots, every citizen, according to their several trade, made their several show, but especially the fishmongers" whose solemn procession including a knight "representing St Magnus, because it was upon St Magnus’ day".
An important religious guild, the Confraternity de Salve Regina, was in existence by 1343, having been founded by the "better sort of the Parish of St Magnus" to sing the anthem ‘Salve Regina’ every evening.[51] The Guild certificates of 1389 record that the Confraternity of Salve Regina and the guild of St Thomas the Martyr in the chapel on the bridge, whose members belonged to St Magnus parish, had determined to become one, to have the anthem of St Thomas after the Salve Regina and to devote their united resources to restoring and enlarging the church of St Magnus.[52] An Act of Parliament of 1437[53] provided that all incorporated fraternities and companies should register their charters and have their ordinances approved by the civic authorities.[54] Fear of enquiry into their privileges may have led established fraternities to seek a firm foundation for their rights. The letters patent of the fraternity of St Mary and St Thomas the Martyr of Salve Regina in St Magnus dated 26 May 1448 mention that the fraternity had petitioned for a charter on the grounds that the society was not duly founded.

In the mid-14th century the Pope was the Patron of the living and appointed five rectors to the benefice.[56]
Henry Yevele, the master mason whose work included the rebuilding of Westminster Hall and the naves of Westminster Abbey and Canterbury Cathedral, was a parishioner and rebuilt the chapel on London Bridge between 1384 and 1397. He served as a warden of London Bridge and was buried at St Magnus on his death in 1400. His monument was extant in John Stow’s time, but was probably destroyed by the fire of 1666.[57]
Yevele, as the King’s Mason, was overseen by Geoffrey Chaucer in his capacity as the Clerk of the King’s Works. In The General Prologue of Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales the five guildsmen "were clothed alle in o lyveree Of a solempne and a greet fraternitee"[58] and may be thought of as belonging to the guild in the parish of St Magnus, or one like it.[59] Chaucer’s family home was near to the bridge in Thames Street.

n 1417 a dispute arose concerning who should take the place of honour amongst the rectors in the City churches at the Whit Monday procession, a place that had been claimed from time to time by the rectors of St Peter Cornhill, St Magnus the Martyr and St Nicholas Cole Abbey. The Mayor and Aldermen decided that the Rector of St Peter Cornhill should take precedence.[61]
St Magnus Corner at the north end of London Bridge was an important meeting place in mediaeval London, where notices were exhibited, proclamations read out and wrongdoers punished.[62] As it was conveniently close to the River Thames, the church was chosen by the Bishop between the 15th and 17th centuries as a convenient venue for general meetings of the clergy in his diocese.[63] Dr John Young, Bishop of Callipolis (rector of St Magnus 1514-15) pronounced judgement on 16 December 1514 (with the Bishop of London and in the presence of Thomas More, then under-sheriff of London) in the heresy case concerning Richard Hunne.[64]
In pictures from the mid-16th century the old church looks very similar to the present-day St Giles without Cripplegate in the Barbican.[65] According to the martyrologist John Foxe, a woman was imprisoned in the ‘cage’ on London Bridge in April 1555 and told to "cool herself there" for refusing to pray at St Magnus for the recently deceased Pope Julius III.[66]
Simon Lowe, a Member of Parliament and Master of the Merchant Taylors’ Company during the reign of Queen Mary and one of the jurors who acquitted Sir Nicholas Throckmorton in 1554, was a parishioner.[67] He was a mourner at the funeral of Maurice Griffith, Bishop of Rochester from 1554 to 1558 and Rector of St Magnus from 1537 to 1558, who was interred in the church on 30 November 1558 with much solemnity. In accordance with the Catholic church’s desire to restore ecclesiastical pageantry in England, the funeral was a splendid affair, ending in a magnificent dinner.

Lowe was included in a return of recusants in the Diocese of Rochester in 1577,[69] but was buried at St Magnus on 6 February 1578.[70] Stow refers to his monument in the church. His eldest son, Timothy (died 1617), was knighted in 1603. His second son, Alderman Sir Thomas Lowe (1550–1623), was Master of the Haberdashers’ Company on several occasions, Sheriff of London in 1595/96, Lord Mayor in 1604/05 and a Member of Parliament for London.[71] His youngest son, Blessed John Lowe (1553–1586), having originally been a Protestant minister, converted to Roman Catholicism, studied for the priesthood at Douay and Rome and returned to London as a missionary priest.[72] His absence had already been noted; a list of 1581 of "such persons of the Diocese of London as have any children … beyond the seas" records "John Low son to Margaret Low of the Bridge, absent without licence four years". Having gained 500 converts to Catholicism between 1583 and 1586, he was arrested whilst walking with his mother near London Bridge, committed to The Clink and executed at Tyburn on 8 October 1586.[73] He was beatified in 1987 as one of the eighty-five martyrs of England and Wales.

Sir William Garrard, Master of the Haberdashers’ Company, Alderman, Sheriff of London in 1553/53, Lord Mayor in 1555/56 and a Member of Parliament was born in the parish and buried at St Magnus in 1571.[74] Sir William Romney, merchant, philanthropist, Master of the Haberdashers’ Company, Alderman for Bridge Within and Sheriff of London in 1603/04[75] was married at St Magnus in 1582. Ben Jonson is believed to have been married at St Magnus in 1594.[76]
The patronage of St Magnus, having previously been in the Abbots and Convents of Westminster and Bermondsey (who presented alternatively), fell to the Crown on the suppression of the monasteries. In 1553, Queen Mary, by letters patent, granted it to the Bishop of London and his successors.[77]
The church had a series of distinguished rectors in the second half of the 16th and first half of the 17th century, including Myles Coverdale (Rector 1564-66), John Young (Rector 1566-92), Theophilus Aylmer (Rector 1592-1625), (Archdeacon of London and son of John Aylmer), and Cornelius Burges (Rector 1626-41). Coverdale was buried in the chancel of St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange, but when that church was pulled down in 1840 his remains were removed to St Magnus.[78]
On 5 November 1562 the churchwardens were ordered to break, or cause to be broken, in two parts all the altar stones in the church.[79] Coverdale, an anti-vestiarian, was Rector at the peak of the vestments controversy. In March 1566 Archbishop Parker caused great consternation among many clergy by his edicts prescribing what was to be worn and by his summoning the London clergy to Lambeth to require their compliance. Coverdale excused himself from attending.[80] Stow records that a non-conforming Scot who normally preached at St Magnus twice a day precipitated a fight on Palm Sunday 1566 at Little All Hallows in Thames Street with his preaching against vestments.[81] Coverdale’s resignation from St Magnus in summer 1566 may have been associated with these events. Separatist congregations started to emerge after 1566 and the first such, who called themselves ‘Puritans’ or ‘Unspottyd Lambs of the Lord’, was discovered close to St Magnus at Plumbers’ Hall in Thames Street on 19 June 1567.

St Magnus narrowly escaped destruction in 1633. A later edition of Stow’s Survey records that "On the 13th day of February, between eleven and twelve at night, there happened in the house of one Briggs, a Needle-maker near St Magnus Church, at the North end of the Bridge, by the carelessness of a Maid-Servant setting a tub of hot sea-coal ashes under a pair of stairs, a sad and lamentable fire, which consumed all the buildings before eight of the clock the next morning, from the North end of the Bridge to the first vacancy on both sides, containing forty-two houses; water then being very scarce, the Thames being almost frozen over."[83] Susannah Chambers "by her last will & testament bearing date 28th December 1640 gave the sum of Twenty-two shillings and Sixpence Yearly for a Sermon to be preached on the 12th day of February in every Year within the Church of Saint Magnus in commemoration of God’s merciful preservation of the said Church of Saint Magnus from Ruin, by the late and terrible Fire on London Bridge. Likewise Annually to the Poor the sum of 17/6."[84] The tradition of a "Fire Sermon" was revived on 12 February 2004, when the first preacher was the Rt Revd and Rt Hon Richard Chartres, Bishop of London.

Parliamentarian rule and the more Protestant ethos of the 1640s led to the removal or destruction of "superstitious" and "idolatrous" images and fittings. Glass painters such as Baptista Sutton, who had previously installed "Laudian innovations", found new employment by repairing and replacing these to meet increasingly strict Protestant standards. In January 1642 Sutton replaced 93 feet of glass at St Magnus and in June 1644 he was called back to take down the "painted imagery glass" and replace it.[86] In June 1641 "rail riots" broke out at a number of churches. This was a time of high tension following the trial and execution of the Earl of Strafford and rumours of army and popish plots were rife. The Protestation Oath, with its pledge to defend the true religion "against all Popery and popish innovation", triggered demands from parishioners for the removal of the rails as popish innovations which the Protestation had bound them to reform. The minister arranged a meeting between those for and against the pulling down of the rails, but was unsuccessful in reaching a compromise and it was feared that they would be demolished by force.[87] However, in 1663 the parish resumed Laudian practice and re-erected rails around its communion table.[88]
Joseph Caryl was incumbent from 1645 until his ejection in 1662. In 1663 he was reportedly living near London Bridge and preaching to an Independent congregation that met at various places in the City.[89]
During the Great Plague of 1665, the City authorities ordered fires to be kept burning night and day, in the hope that the air would be cleansed. Daniel Defoe’s semi-fictictional, but highly realistic, work A Journal of the Plague Year records that one of these was "just by St Magnus Church"

Despite its escape in 1633, the church was one of the first buildings to be destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666.[91] St Magnus stood less than 300 yards from the bakehouse of Thomas Farriner in Pudding Lane where the fire started. Farriner, a former churchwarden of St Magnus, was buried in the middle aisle of the church on 11 December 1670, perhaps within a temporary structure erected for holding services.[92]
The parish engaged the master mason George Dowdeswell to start the work of rebuilding in 1668. The work was carried forward between 1671 and 1687 under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren, the body of the church being substantially complete by 1676.[93] At a cost of £9,579 19s 10d St Magnus was one of Wren’s most expensive churches.[94] The church of St Margaret New Fish Street was not rebuilt after the fire and its parish was united to that of St Magnus.

The chancels of many of Wren’s city churches had chequered marble floors and the chancel of St Magnus is an example,[95] the parish agreeing after some debate to place the communion table on a marble ascent with steps[96] and to commission altar rails of Sussex wrought iron. The nave and aisles are paved with freestone flags. A steeple, closely modelled on one built between 1614 and 1624 by François d’Aguilon and Pieter Huyssens for the church of St Carolus Borromeus in Antwerp, was added between 1703 and 1706.[97] London’s skyline was transformed by Wren’s tall steeples and that of St Magnus is considered to be one his finest.[98]
The large clock projecting from the tower was a well-known landmark in the city as it hung over the roadway of Old London Bridge.[99] It was presented to the church in 1709 by Sir Charles Duncombe[100] (Alderman for the Ward of Bridge Within and, in 1708/09, Lord Mayor of London). Tradition says "that it was erected in consequence of a vow made by the donor, who, in the earlier part of his life, had once to wait a considerable time in a cart upon London Bridge, without being able to learn the hour, when he made a promise, that if he ever became successful in the world, he would give to that Church a public clock … that all passengers might see the time of day."[101] The maker was Langley Bradley, a clockmaker in Fenchurch Street, who had worked for Wren on many other projects, including the clock for the new St Paul’s Cathedral. The sword rest in the church, designed to hold the Lord Mayor’s sword and mace when he attended divine service "in state", dates from 1708.
Duncombe and his benefactions to St Magnus feature prominently in Daniel Defoe’s The True-Born Englishman, a biting satire on critics of William III that went through several editions from 1700 (the year in which Duncombe was elected Sheriff).

Shortly before his death in 1711, Duncombe commissioned an organ for the church, the first to have a swell-box, by Abraham Jordan (father and son).[103] The Spectator announced that "Whereas Mr Abraham Jordan, senior and junior, have, with their own hands, joinery excepted, made and erected a very large organ in St Magnus’ Church, at the foot of London Bridge, consisting of four sets of keys, one of which is adapted to the art of emitting sounds by swelling notes, which never was in any organ before; this instrument will be publicly opened on Sunday next [14 February 1712], the performance by Mr John Robinson. The above-said Abraham Jordan gives notice to all masters and performers, that he will attend every day next week at the said Church, to accommodate all those gentlemen who shall have a curiosity to hear it".[104]
The organ case, which remains in its original state, is looked upon as one of the finest existing examples of the Grinling Gibbons’s school of wood carving.[105] The first organist of St Magnus was John Robinson (1682–1762), who served in that role for fifty years and in addition as organist of Westminster Abbey from 1727. Other organists have included the blind organist George Warne (1792–1868, organist 1820-26 until his appointment to the Temple Church), James Coward (1824–80, organist 1868-80 who was also organist to the Crystal Palace and renowned for his powers of improvisation) and George Frederick Smith FRCO (1856–1918, organist 1880-1918 and Professor of Music at the Guildhall School of Music).[106] The organ has been restored several times – in 1760, 1782, 1804, 1855, 1861, 1879, 1891, 1924, 1949 after wartime damage and 1997 – since it was first built.[107] Sir Peter Maxwell Davies was one of several patrons of the organ appeal in the mid-1990s[108] and John Scott gave an inaugural recital on 20 May 1998 following the completion of that restoration.[109] The instrument has an Historic Organ Certificate and full details are recorded in the National Pipe Organ Register.[110]
The hymn tune "St Magnus", usually sung at Ascensiontide to the text "The head that once was crowned with thorns", was written by Jeremiah Clarke in 1701 and named for the church.

Canaletto drew St Magnus and old London Bridge as they appeared in the late 1740s.[112] Between 1756 and 1762, under the London Bridge Improvement Act of 1756 (c. 40), the Corporation of London demolished the buildings on London Bridge to widen the roadway, ease traffic congestion and improve safety for pedestrians.[113] The churchwardens’ accounts of St Magnus list many payments to those injured on the Bridge and record that in 1752 a man was crushed to death between two carts.[114] After the House of Commons had resolved upon the alteration of London Bridge, the Rev Robert Gibson, Rector of St Magnus, applied to the House for relief; stating that 48l. 6s. 2d. per annum, part of his salary of 170l. per annum, was assessed upon houses on London Bridge; which he should utterly lose by their removal unless a clause in the bill about to be passed should provide a remedy.[115] Accordingly, Sections 18 and 19 of 1756 Act provided that the relevant amounts of tithe and poor rate should be a charge on the Bridge House Estates.[116]
A serious fire broke out on 18 April 1760 in an oil shop at the south east corner of the church, which consumed most of the church roof and did considerable damage to the fabric. The fire burnt warehouses to the south of the church and a number of houses on the northern end of London Bridge.

As part of the bridge improvements, overseen by the architect Sir Robert Taylor, a new pedestrian walkway was built along the eastern side of the bridge. With the other buildings gone St Magnus blocked the new walkway.[117] As a consequence it was necessary in 1762 to 1763 to remove the vestry rooms at the West end of the church and open up the side arches of the tower so that people could pass underneath the tower.[118] The tower’s lower storey thus became an external porch. Internally a lobby was created at the West end under the organ gallery and a screen with fine octagonal glazing inserted. A new Vestry was built to the South of the church.[119] The Act also provided that the land taken from the church for the widening was "to be considered … as part of the cemetery of the said church … but if the pavement thereof be broken up on account of the burying of any persons, the same shall be … made good … by the churchwardens"

Soldiers were stationed in the Vestry House of St Magnus during the Gordon Riots in June 1780.[121]
By 1782 the noise level from the activities of Billingsgate Fish Market had become unbearable and the large windows on the north side of the church were blocked up leaving only circular windows high up in the wall.[122] At some point between the 1760s and 1814 the present clerestory was constructed with its oval windows and fluted and coffered plasterwork.[123] J. M. W. Turner painted the church in the mid-1790s.[124]
The rector of St Magnus between 1792 and 1808, following the death of Robert Gibson on 28 July 1791,[125] was Thomas Rennell FRS. Rennell was President of Sion College in 1806/07. There is a monument to Thomas Leigh (Rector 1808-48 and President of Sion College 1829/30,[126] at St Peter’s Church, Goldhanger in Essex.[127] Richard Hazard (1761–1837) was connected with the church as sexton, parish clerk and ward beadle for nearly 50 years[128] and served as Master of the Parish Clerks’ Company in 1831/32.[129]
In 1825 the church was "repaired and beautified at a very considerable expense. During the reparation the east window, which had been closed, was restored, and the interior of the fabric conformed to the state in which it was left by its great architect, Sir Christopher Wren. The magnificent organ … was taken down and rebuilt by Mr Parsons, and re-opened, with the church, on the 12th February, 1826".[130] Unfortunately, as a contemporary writer records, "On the night of the 31st of July, 1827, [the church’s] safety was threatened by the great fire which consumed the adjacent warehouses, and it is perhaps owing to the strenuous and praiseworthy exertions of the firemen, that the structure exists at present. … divine service was suspended and not resumed until the 20th January 1828. In the interval the church received such tasteful and elegant decorations, that it may now compete with any church in the metropolis.

In 1823 royal assent was given to ‘An Act for the Rebuilding of London Bridge’ and in 1825 John Garratt, Lord Mayor and Alderman of the Ward of Bridge Within, laid the first stone of the new London Bridge.[132] In 1831 Sir John Rennie’s new bridge was opened further upstream and the old bridge demolished. St Magnus ceased to be the gateway to London as it had been for over 600 years. Peter de Colechurch[133] had been buried in the crypt of the chapel on the bridge and his bones were unceremoniously dumped in the River Thames.[134] In 1921 two stones from Old London Bridge were discovered across the road from the church. They now stand in the churchyard.
Wren’s church of St Michael Crooked Lane was demolished, the final service on Sunday 20 March 1831 having to be abandoned due to the effects of the building work. The Rector of St Michael preached a sermon the following Sunday at St Magnus lamenting the demolition of his church with its monuments and "the disturbance of the worship of his parishioners on the preceeding Sabbath".[135] The parish of St Michael Crooked Lane was united to that of St Magnus, which itself lost a burial ground in Church Yard Alley to the approach road for the new bridge.[136] However, in substitution it had restored to it the land taken for the widening of the old bridge in 1762 and was also given part of the approach lands to the east of the old bridge.[137] In 1838 the Committee for the London Bridge Approaches reported to Common Council that new burial grounds had been provided for the parishes of St Michael, Crooked Lane and St Magnus, London Bridge.

Depictions of St Magnus after the building of the new bridge, seen behind Fresh Wharf and the new London Bridge Wharf, include paintings by W. Fenoulhet in 1841 and by Charles Ginner in 1913.[139] This prospect was affected in 1924 by the building of Adelaide House to a design by John James Burnet,[140] The Times commenting that "the new ‘architectural Matterhorn’ … conceals all but the tip of the church spire".[141] There was, however, an excellent view of the church for a few years between the demolition of Adelaide Buildings and the erection of its replacement.[142] Adelaide House is now listed.[143] Regis House, on the site of the abandoned King William Street terminus of the City & South London Railway (subsequently the Northern Line),[144] and the Steam Packet Inn, on the corner of Lower Thames Street and Fish Street Hill,[145] were developed in 1931.

By the early 1960s traffic congestion had become a problem[147] and Lower Thames Street was widened over the next decade[148] to form part of a significant new east-west transport artery (the A3211).[149] The setting of the church was further affected by the construction of a new London Bridge between 1967 and 1973.[150] The New Fresh Wharf warehouse to the east of the church, built in 1939, was demolished in 1973-4 following the collapse of commercial traffic in the Pool of London[151] and, after an archaeological excavation,[152] St Magnus House was constructed on the site in 1978 to a design by R. Seifert & Partners.[153] This development now allows a clear view of the church from the east side.[154] The site to the south east of The Monument (between Fish Street Hill and Pudding Lane), formerly predominantly occupied by fish merchants,[155] was redeveloped as Centurion House and Gartmore (now Providian) House at the time of the closure of old Billingsgate Market in January 1982.[156] A comprehensive redevelopment of Centurion House began in October 2011 with completion planned in 2013.[157] Regis House, to the south west of The Monument, was redeveloped by Land Securities PLC in 1998.[158]
The vista from The Monument south to the River Thames, over the roof of St Magnus, is protected under the City of London Unitary Development Plan,[159] although the South bank of the river is now dominated by The Shard. Since 2004 the City of London Corporation has been exploring ways of enhancing the Riverside Walk to the south of St Magnus.[160] Work on a new staircase to connect London Bridge to the Riverside Walk is due to commence in March 2013.[161] The story of St Magnus’s relationship with London Bridge and an interview with the rector featured in the television programme The Bridges That Built London with Dan Cruickshank, first broadcast on BBC Four on 14 June 2012.[162] The City Corporation’s ‘Fenchurch and Monument Area Enhancement Strategy’ of August 2012 recommended ways of reconnecting St Magnus and the riverside to the area north of Lower Thames Street.

A lectureship at St Michael Crooked Lane, which was transferred to St Magnus in 1831, was endowed by the wills of Thomas and Susannah Townsend in 1789 and 1812 respectively.[164] The Revd Henry Robert Huckin, Headmaster of Repton School from 1874 to 1882, was appointed Townsend Lecturer at St Magnus in 1871.[165]
St Magnus narrowly escaped damage from a major fire in Lower Thames Street in October 1849.

During the second half of the 19th century the rectors were Alexander McCaul, DD (1799–1863, Rector 1850-63), who coined the term ‘Judaeo Christian’ in a letter dated 17 October 1821,[167] and his son Alexander Israel McCaul (1835–1899, curate 1859-63, rector 1863-99). The Revd Alexander McCaul Sr[168] was a Christian missionary to the Polish Jews, who (having declined an offer to become the first Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem)[169] was appointed professor of Hebrew and rabbinical literature at King’s College, London in 1841. His daughter, Elizabeth Finn (1825–1921), a noted linguist, founded the Distressed Gentlefolk Aid Association (now known as Elizabeth Finn Care).[170]
In 1890 it was reported that the Bishop of London was to hold an inquiry as to the desirability of uniting the benefices of St George Botolph Lane and St Magnus. The expectation was a fusion of the two livings, the demolition of St George’s and the pensioning of "William Gladstone’s favourite Canon", Malcolm MacColl. Although services ceased there, St George’s was not demolished until 1904. The parish was then merged with St Mary at Hill rather than St Magnus.[171]
The patronage of the living was acquired in the late 19th century by Sir Henry Peek Bt. DL MP, Senior Partner of Peek Brothers & Co of 20 Eastcheap, the country’s largest firm of wholesale tea brokers and dealers, and Chairman of the Commercial Union Assurance Co. Peek was a generous philanthropist who was instrumental in saving both Wimbledon Common and Burnham Beeches from development. His grandson, Sir Wilfred Peek Bt. DSO JP, presented a cousin, Richard Peek, as rector in 1904. Peek, an ardent Freemason, held the office of Grand Chaplain of England. The Times recorded that his memorial service in July 1920 "was of a semi-Masonic character, Mr Peek having been a prominent Freemason".[172] In June 1895 Peek had saved the life of a young French girl who jumped overboard from a ferry midway between Dinard and St Malo in Brittany and was awarded the bronze medal of the Royal Humane Society and the Gold Medal 1st Class of the Sociâetâe Nationale de Sauvetage de France.[173]
In November 1898 a memorial service was held at St Magnus for Sir Stuart Knill Bt. (1824–1898), head of the firm of John Knill and Co, wharfingers, and formerly Lord Mayor and Master of the Plumbers’ Company.[174] This was the first such service for a Roman Catholic taken in an Anglican church.[175] Sir Stuart’s son, Sir John Knill Bt. (1856-1934), also served as Alderman for the Ward of Bridge Within, Lord Mayor and Master of the Plumbers’ Company.

Until 1922 the annual Fish Harvest Festival was celebrated at St Magnus.[176] The service moved in 1923 to St Dunstan in the East[177] and then to St Mary at Hill, but St Magnus retained close links with the local fish merchants until the closure of old Billingsgate Market. St Magnus, in the 1950s, was "buried in the stink of Billingsgate fish-market, against which incense was a welcome antidote".

A report in 1920 proposed the demolition of nineteen City churches, including St Magnus.[179] A general outcry from members of the public and parishioners alike prevented the execution of this plan.[180] The members of the City Livery Club passed a resolution that they regarded "with horror and indignation the proposed demolition of 19 City churches" and pledged the Club to do everything in its power to prevent such a catastrophe.[181] T. S. Eliot wrote that the threatened churches gave "to the business quarter of London a beauty which its hideous banks and commercial houses have not quite defaced. … the least precious redeems some vulgar street … The loss of these towers, to meet the eye down a grimy lane, and of these empty naves, to receive the solitary visitor at noon from the dust and tumult of Lombard Street, will be irreparable and unforgotten."[182] The London County Council published a report concluding that St Magnus was "one of the most beautiful of all Wren’s works" and "certainly one of the churches which should not be demolished without specially good reasons and after very full consideration."[183] Due to the uncertainty about the church’s future, the patron decided to defer action to fill the vacancy in the benefice and a curate-in-charge temporarily took responsibility for the parish.[184] However, on 23 April 1921 it was announced that the Revd Henry Joy Fynes-Clinton would be the new Rector. The Times concluded that the appointment, with the Bishop’s approval, meant that the proposed demolition would not be carried out.[185] Fr Fynes-Clinton was inducted on 31 May 1921.[186]
The rectory, built by Robert Smirke in 1833-5, was at 39 King William Street.[187] A decision was taken in 1909 to sell the property, the intention being to purchase a new rectory in the suburbs, but the sale fell through and at the time of the 1910 Land Tax Valuations the building was being let out to a number of tenants. The rectory was sold by the diocese on 30 May 1921 for £8,000 to Ridgways Limited, which owned the adjoining premises.[188] The Vestry House adjoining the south west of the church, replacing the one built in the 1760s, may also have been by Smirke. Part of the burial ground of St Michael Crooked Lane, located between Fish Street Hill and King William Street, survived as an open space until 1987 when it was compulsorily purchased to facilitate the extension of the Docklands Light Railway into the City.[189] The bodies were reburied at Brookwood Cemetery.

The interior of the church was restored by Martin Travers in 1924, in a neo-baroque style,[191] reflecting the Anglo-Catholic character of the congregation[192] following the appointment of Henry Joy Fynes-Clinton as Rector.[193] Fr Fynes, as he was often known, served as Rector of St Magnus from 31 May 1921 until his death on 4 December 1959 and substantially beautified the interior of the church.[194]
Fynes-Clinton held very strong Anglo-Catholic views, and proceeded to make St Magnus as much like a baroque Roman Catholic church as possible. However, "he was such a loveable character with an old-world courtesy which was irresistible, that it was difficult for anyone to be unpleasant to him, however much they might disapprove of his views".[195] He generally said the Roman Mass in Latin; and in personality was "grave, grand, well-connected and holy, with a laconic sense of humour".[196] To a Protestant who had come to see Coverdale’s monument he is reported to have said "We have just had a service in the language out of which he translated the Bible".[197] The use of Latin in services was not, however, without grammatical danger. A response from his parishioners of "Ora pro nobis" after "Omnes sancti Angeli et Archangeli" in the Litany of the Saints would elicit a pause and the correction "No, Orate pro nobis."

In 1922 Fynes-Clinton refounded the Fraternity of Our Lady de Salve Regina.[198] The Fraternity’s badge[199] is shown in the stained glass window at the east end of the north wall of the church above the reredos of the Lady Chapel altar. He also erected a statue of Our Lady of Walsingham and arranged pilgrimages to the Norfolk shrine, where he was one of the founding Guardians.[200] In 1928 the journal of the Catholic League reported that St Magnus had presented a votive candle to the Shrine at Walsingham "in token of our common Devotion and the mutual sympathy and prayers that are we hope a growing bond between the peaceful country shrine and the church in the heart of the hurrying City, from the Altar of which the Pilgrimages regularly start".[201]
Fynes-Clinton was General Secretary of the Anglican and Eastern Orthodox Churches Union and its successor, the Anglican and Eastern Churches Association, from 1906 to 1920 and served as Secretary to the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Eastern Churches Committee from 1920 to around 1924. A Solemn Requiem was celebrated at St Magnus in September 1921 for the late King Peter of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
At the midday service on 1 March 1922, J.A. Kensit, leader of the Protestant Truth Society, got up and protested against the form of worship.[202] The proposed changes to the church in 1924 led to a hearing in the Consistory Court of the Chancellor of the Diocese of London and an appeal to the Court of Arches.[203] Judgement was given by the latter Court in October 1924. The advowson was purchased in 1931, without the knowledge of the Rector and Parochial Church Council, by the evangelical Sir Charles King-Harman.[204] A number of such cases, including the purchase of the advowsons of Clapham and Hampstead Parish Churches by Sir Charles, led to the passage of the Benefices (Purchase of Rights of Patronage) Measure 1933.[205] This allowed the parishioners of St Magnus to purchase the advowson from Sir Charles King-Harman for £1,300 in 1934 and transfer it to the Patronage Board.

St Magnus was one of the churches that held special services before the opening of the second Anglo-Catholic Congress in 1923.[207] Fynes-Clinton[208] was the first incumbent to hold lunchtime services for City workers.[209] Pathé News filmed the Palm Sunday procession at St Magnus in 1935.[210] In The Towers of Trebizond, the novel by Rose Macauley published in 1956, Fr Chantry-Pigg’s church is described as being several feet higher than St Mary’s Bourne Street and some inches above even St Magnus the Martyr.[211]
In July 1937 Fr Fynes-Clinton, with two members of his congregation, travelled to Kirkwall to be present at the 800th anniversary celebrations of St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall. During their stay they visited Egilsay and were shown the spot where St Magnus had been slain. Later Fr Fynes-Clinton was present at a service held at the roofless church of St Magnus on Egilsay, where he suggested to his host Mr Fryer, the minister of the Cathedral, that the congregations of Kirkwall and London should unite to erect a permanent stone memorial on the traditional site where Earl Magnus had been murdered. In 1938 a cairn was built of local stone on Egilsay. It stands 12 feet high and is 6 feet broad at its base. The memorial was dedicated on 7 September 1938 and a bronze inscription on the monument reads "erected by the Rector and Congregation of St Magnus the Martyr by London Bridge and the Minister and Congregation of St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall to commemorate the traditional spot where Earl Magnus was slain, AD circa 1116 and to commemorate the Octocentenary of St Magnus Cathedral 1937"

A bomb which fell on London Bridge in 1940 during the Blitz of World War II blew out all the windows and damaged the plasterwork and the roof of the north aisle.[213] However, the church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950[214] and repaired in 1951, being re-opened for worship in June of that year by the Bishop of London, William Wand.[215] The architect was Laurence King.[216] Restoration and redecoration work has subsequently been carried out several times, including after a fire in the early hours of 4 November 1995.[217] Cleaning of the exterior stonework was completed in 2010.

Some minor changes were made to the parish boundary in 1954, including the transfer to St Magnus of an area between Fish Street Hill and Pudding Lane. The site of St Leonard Eastcheap, a church that was not rebuilt after the Great Fire, is therefore now in the parish of St Magnus despite being united to St Edmund the King.
Fr Fynes-Clinton marked the 50th anniversary of his priesthood in May 1952 with High Mass at St Magnus and lunch at Fishmongers’ Hall.[218] On 20 September 1956 a solemn Mass was sung in St Magnus to commence the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the restoration of the Holy House at Walsingham in 1931. In the evening of that day a reception was held in the large chamber of Caxton Hall, when between three and four hundred guests assembled.[219]
Fr Fynes-Clinton was succeeded as rector in 1960 by Fr Colin Gill,[220] who remained as incumbent until his death in 1983.[221] Fr Gill was also closely connected with Walsingham and served as a Guardian between 1953 and 1983, including nine years as Master of the College of Guardians.[222] He celebrated the Mass at the first National Pilgrimage in 1959[223] and presided over the Jubilee celebrations to mark the 50th anniversary of the Shrine in 1981, having been present at the Holy House’s opening.[224] A number of the congregation of St Stephen’s Lewisham moved to St Magnus around 1960, following temporary changes in the form of worship there.

In 1994 the Templeman Commission proposed a radical restructuring of the churches in the City Deanery. St Magnus was identified as one of the 12 churches that would remain as either a parish or an ‘active’ church.[226] However, the proposals were dropped following a public outcry and the consecration of a new Bishop of London.
The parish priest since 2003 has been Fr Philip Warner, who was previously priest-in-charge of St Mary’s Church, Belgrade (Diocese in Europe) and Apokrisiarios for the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Serbian Orthodox Church. Since January 2004 there has been an annual Blessing of the Thames, with the congregations of St Magnus and Southwark Cathedral meeting in the middle of London Bridge.[227] On Sunday 3 July 2011, in anticipation of the feast of the translation of St Thomas Becket (7 July), a procession from St Magnus brought a relic of the saint to the middle of the bridge.[228]
David Pearson specially composed two new pieces, a communion anthem A Mhànais mo rùin (O Magnus of my love) and a hymn to St Magnus Nobilis, humilis, for performance at the church on the feast of St Magnus the Martyr, 16 April 2012.[229] St Magnus’s organist, John Eady, has won composition competitions for new choral works at St Paul’s Cathedral (a setting of Veni Sancte Spiritus first performed on 27 May 2012) and at Lincoln Cathedral (a setting of the Matin responsory for Advent first performed on 30 November 2013).[230]
In addition to liturgical music of a high standard, St Magnus is the venue for a wide range of musical events. The Clemens non Papa Consort, founded in 2005, performs in collaboration with the production team Concert Bites as the church’s resident ensemble.[231] The church is used by The Esterhazy Singers for rehearsals and some concerts.[232] The band Mishaped Pearls performed at the church on 17 December 2011.[233] St Magnus featured in the television programme Jools Holland: London Calling, first broadcast on BBC2 on 9 June 2012.[234] The Platinum Consort made a promotional film at St Magnus for the release of their debut album In the Dark on 2 July 2012.[235]
The Friends of the City Churches had their office in the Vestry House of St Magnus until 2013.

Martin Travers modified the high altar reredos, adding paintings of Moses and Aaron and the Ten Commandments between the existing Corinthian columns and reconstructing the upper storey. Above the reredos Travers added a painted and gilded rood.[237] In the centre of the reredos there is a carved gilded pelican (an early Christian symbol of self-sacrifice) and a roundel with Baroque-style angels. The glazed east window, which can be seen in an early photograph of the church, appears to have been filled in at this time. A new altar with console tables was installed and the communion rails moved outwards to extend the size of the sanctuary. Two old door frames were used to construct side chapels and placed at an angle across the north-east and south-east corners of the church. One, the Lady Chapel, was dedicated to the Rector’s parents in 1925 and the other was dedicated to Christ the King. Originally, a baroque aumbry was used for Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament, but later a tabernacle was installed on the Lady Chapel altar and the aumbry was used to house a relic of the True Cross.
The interior was made to look more European by the removal of the old box pews and the installation of new pews with cut-down ends. Two new columns were inserted in the nave to make the lines regular. The Wren-period pulpit by the joiner William Grey[238] was opened up and provided with a soundboard and crucifix. Travers also designed the statue of St Magnus of Orkney, which stands in the south aisle, and the statue of Our Lady of Walsingham.[239]
On the north wall there is a Russian Orthodox icon, painted in 1908. The modern stations of the cross in honey-coloured Japanese oak are the work of Robert Randall and Ashley Sands.[240] One of the windows in the north wall dates from 1671 and came from Plumbers’ Hall in Chequer Yard, Bush Lane, which was demolished in 1863 to make way for Cannon Street Railway Station.[241] A fireplace from the Hall was re-erected in the Vestry House. The other windows on the north side are by Alfred Wilkinson and date from 1952 to 1960. These show the arms of the Plumbers’, Fishmongers’ and Coopers’ Companies together with those of William Wand when Bishop of London and Geoffrey Fisher when Archbishop of Canterbury and (as noted above) the badge of the Fraternity of Our Lady de Salve Regina.
The stained glass windows in the south wall, which are by Lawrence Lee and date from 1949 to 1955, represent lost churches associated with the parish: St Magnus and his ruined church of Egilsay, St Margaret of Antioch with her lost church in New Fish Street (where the Monument to the Great Fire now stands), St Michael with his lost church of Crooked Lane (demolished to make way for the present King William Street) and St Thomas Becket with his chapel on Old London Bridge.[242]
The church possesses a fine model of Old London Bridge. One of the tiny figures on the bridge appears out of place in the mediaeval setting, wearing a policeman’s uniform. This is a representation of the model-maker, David T. Aggett, who is a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Plumbers and was formerly in the police service.[243]
The Mischiefs by Fire Act 1708 and the Fires Prevention (Metropolis) Act 1774 placed a requirement on every parish to keep equipment to fight fires. The church owns two historic fire engines that belonged to the parish of St Michael, Crooked Lane.[244] One of these is in storage at the Museum of London. The whereabouts of the other, which was misappropriated and sold at auction in 2003, is currently unknown.
In 1896 many bodies were disinterred from the crypt and reburied at the St Magnus’s plot at Brookwood Cemetery, which remains the church’s burial ground.

Prior to the Great Fire of 1666 the old tower had a ring of five bells, a small saints bell and a clock bell.[246] 47 cwt of bell metal was recovered[247] which suggests that the tenor was 13 or 14 cwt. The metal was used to cast three new bells, by William Eldridge of Chertsey in 1672,[248] with a further saints bell cast that year by Hodson.[249] In the absence of a tower, the tenor and saints bell were hung in a free standing timber structure, whilst the others remained unhung.[250]
A new tower was completed in 1704 and it is likely that these bells were transferred to it. However, the tenor became cracked in 1713 and it was decided to replace the bells with a new ring of eight.[251] The new bells, with a tenor of 21 cwt, were cast by Richard Phelps of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. Between 1714 and 1718 (the exact date of which is unknown), the ring was increased to ten with the addition of two trebles given by two former ringing Societies, the Eastern Youths and the British Scholars.[252] The first peal was rung on 15 February 1724 of Grandsire Caters by the Society of College Youths. The second bell had to be recast in 1748 by Robert Catlin, and the tenor was recast in 1831 by Thomas Mears of Whitechapel,[253] just in time to ring for the opening of the new London Bridge. In 1843, the treble was said to be "worn out" and so was scrapped, together with the saints bell, while a new treble was cast by Thomas Mears.[254] A new clock bell was erected in the spire in 1846, provided by B R & J Moore, who had earlier purchased it from Thomas Mears.[255] This bell can still be seen in the tower from the street.
The 10 bells were removed for safe keeping in 1940 and stored in the churchyard. They were taken to Whitechapel Bell Foundry in 1951 whereupon it was discovered that four of them were cracked. After a long period of indecision, fuelled by lack of funds and interest, the bells were finally sold for scrap in 1976. The metal was used to cast many of the Bells of Congress that were then hung in the Old Post Office Tower in Washington, D.C.
A fund was set up on 19 September 2005, led by Dickon Love, a member of the Ancient Society of College Youths, with a view to installing a new ring of 12 bells in the tower in a new frame. This was the first of three new rings of bells he has installed in the City of London (the others being at St Dunstan-in-the-West and St James Garlickhythe). The money was raised and the bells were cast during 2008/9 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. The tenor weighed 26cwt 3qtr 9 lbs (1360 kg) and the new bells were designed to be in the same key as the former ring of ten. They were consecrated by the Bishop of London on 3 March 2009 in the presence of the Lord Mayor[256] and the ringing dedicated on 26 October 2009 by the Archdeacon of London.[257] The bells are named (in order smallest to largest) Michael, Margaret, Thomas of Canterbury, Mary, Cedd, Edward the Confessor, Dunstan, John the Baptist, Erkenwald, Paul, Mellitus and Magnus.[258] The bells project is recorded by an inscription in the vestibule of the church.

The first peal on the twelve was rung on 29 November 2009 of Cambridge Surprise Maximus.[260] Notable other recent peals include a peal of Stedman Cinques on 16 April 2011 to mark the 400th anniversary of the granting of a Royal Charter to the Plumbers’ Company,[261] a peal of Cambridge Surprise Royal on 28 June 2011 when the Fishmongers’ Company gave a dinner for Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh at their hall on the occasion of his 90th birthday[262] and a peal of Avon Delight Maximus on 24 July 2011 in solidarity with the people of Norway following the tragic massacre on Utoeya Island and in Oslo.[263] On the latter occasion the flag of the Orkney Islands was flown at half mast. In 2012 peals were rung during the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant on 3 June and during each of the three Olympic/Paralympic marathons, on 5 and 12 August and 9 September.
The BBC television programme, Still Ringing After All These Years: A Short History of Bells, broadcast on 14 December 2011, included an interview at St Magnus with the Tower Keeper, Dickon Love,[264] who was captain of the band that rang the "Royal Jubilee Bells" during the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant on 3 June 2012 to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.[265] Prior to this, he taught John Barrowman to handle a bell at St Magnus for the BBC coverage.
The bells are currently rung every Sunday around 12:15 (following the service) by the Guild of St Magnus.

Every other June, newly elected wardens of the Fishmongers’ Company, accompanied by the Court, proceed on foot from Fishmongers’ Hall[267] to St Magnus for an election service.[268] St Magnus is also the Guild Church of The Plumbers’ Company. Two former rectors have served as master of the company,[269] which holds all its services at the church.[270] On 12 April 2011 a service was held to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the granting of the company’s Royal Charter at which the Bishop of London, the Rt Revd and Rt Hon Richard Chartres KCVO, gave the sermon and blessed the original Royal Charter. For many years the Cloker Service was held at St Magnus, attended by the Coopers’ Company and Grocers’ Company, at which the clerk of the Coopers’ Company read the will of Henry Cloker dated 10 March 1573.[271]
St Magnus is also the ward church for the Ward of Bridge and Bridge Without, which elects one of the city’s aldermen. Between 1550 and 1978 there were separate aldermen for Bridge Within and Bridge Without, the former ward being north of the river and the latter representing the City’s area of control in Southwark. The Bridge Ward Club was founded in 1930 to "promote social activities and discussion of topics of local and general interest and also to exchange Ward and parochial information" and holds its annual carol service at St Magnus.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Magnus-the-Martyr

Posted by Jelltex on 2015-01-21 21:21:03

Tagged: , St Magnus the Martyr , Lower Thames Street , City of London , church , Jelltex , jelltecks

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red

Script below – Read with Images Sequenced in the Script – JS

The Song of Mary Entler by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com/?p=13488 7888 words

The Song of Mary Entler Herrington by Jim Surkamp

1_The_Song_of_Mary_Entler
The Song of Mary Louise Entler Herrington (1840-1932)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

CHAPTERETTES
Prelude
Flag Dangerous:
Carry the Secret Mail:
The Sad Fate of the Great Western:
A Wartime Shepherdstown Each Day:
A Sidetracked Mission:
“Fraternizing” With the Enemy:
Peacetime – Eternal Tide of Memories:
The Eyes of Age:

About the end of the heydays of a great inn; about the innkeeper’s feisty, adventurous – amorous – young daughter during the Civil War who lived to tell about it and see her family’s inn perish

PRELUDE:

2_The 1850s in Shepherdstown
The 1850s in Shepherdstown: Good Times for Joseph and Mary Entler

3_The Entlers boarded travelers
The Entlers boarded travelers and stabled their teams by the score in their Great Western Inn on Shepherdstown’s German Street.

As Mary Louise Entler Herrington (hereafter “MLH”) told it:
After my father bought it in 1809, he hung a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house.

4_In the middle of the sign
In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘JOS. ENTLER”.

For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back. All these white-covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

The house was a quaint, 52-foot-long weatherboard house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or (carriage stepping stones).

The dining room was 34-feet-long. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five, four-horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River.

5_The large fireplace was in the kitchen
The large fireplace was in the kitchen that also had the cranes and pothooks and hangers.

Seventeen rooms were in the house and many also had large old-fashioned fireplaces and were finished with high-paneled mantelpieces.

In the 1850s children remembered the fancy carriages, with many horses pulling, making the smart, sharp turn from the main streeet to the lane leading to the rear stables.

6_lane leading to the rear stables
All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent.

Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingerd Cottage in 1858 and leased out the Great Western. Then that all ended – and, so did the Great Western.

FLAG DANGEROUS:

7_Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance
Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance – and several friends sat in chairs in the big hall of Wingerd Cottage sewing . . and sewing – ripping stars from an American flag mailed to them from New Orleans, that once waved from a ship of Rezin Davis Shepherd’s, as he perhaps thought such a flag might be more trouble to have in New Orleans, as the new war boiled over and Louisiana seceded from the Union in early 1861.

8_Mary Entler Herrington retold her past
Mary Licklider, a niece, recalled how Mary Entler Herrington retold her past before dying in 1932:

A U.S. flag, probably made of wool bunting fabric was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr.

9_Rezin Shepherd
Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then.

10_Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage
My father Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete.

11_It was very tedious to rip every seam
It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting.

12_Every star was ripped from the blue field
Every star was ripped from the blue field, and

13_then to sew all the red together
then to sew all the red together

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red
and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red.

15_Of course we had a surplus of stars
Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young.

After many weeks of work, the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. (Mary’s brother – Cato Moore Entler – was with Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

MLH recalled an investigation in the fall of 1861:

16_I heard the tramp of cavalry
I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by “Yankee” cavalry.

Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it.

I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide with deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet.

17_My door was pushed open
My door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue-striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery.

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas, the 30th of October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia infantry regiment that the unit reportedly carried into battle at First Manassas/Bull Run, but was smuggled back to the Rutherfords in Charles Town.

CARRY THE SECRET MAIL:

18_Carry_Secret_Mail
March, 1862

MLH recalled:
19_We collected all letters and concealed them
We collected all letters and concealed them by carefully sewing them between the ruching and dress. It required neatness and patience to make the work look innocent of anything contraband. We started on our march one bright beautiful morning but the roads being soft and muddy and we being not yet accustomed to marching could not get over much ground as rapidly as Stonewall Jackson’s men. The first night was spent at the home of Mr. Foley where another mail was collected. Another bright morning blessed our errand and when the purple shades of evening were gathering in the west we entered Charles Town as leisurely and passed the Union soldiers as indifferently as though we were out for an evening stroll. What a triumph it would have been for them to have secured that mail; how they would have gloated over every sacred sentence in those letters. My heart thrilled with fear at the thought although apparently so indifferent to their presence.

20_THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL
THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL:

December 26, 1862: The 12th Pennsylvania cavalry – The Bull Run Racers – crossed over the river ford into town and the (Federal-sympathcizing) refugees all came back from Maryland with a fire in their eyes and revenge for Mort Cookus’ blood (who was shot and killed by Andrew Leopold near Dam No. 4 on November 19th. (The refugees) declared that every Southern man’s house should be burned down. – Gallaher in “The Shepherdstown Register.”

MLH:
The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed.

21_WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY
WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY:

MLH recalled:
1863 still finds our town disputed territory and a veritable “deserted village” – old men, women, and children with a very few Union men . . . In time of war when both armies have fallen back, a town presents a most desolate and forlorn appearance-the old people, women and children have no definite plans. They stand about in groups writing and talking of the latest battle or the expected skirmishes. Their homes are places to retire from inclement weather rather than to adorn – the table to satisfy hunger rather than the delightful board where sweet companionship mingled with health-giving food.

No systematic housekeeping, no aim, no object in performing any household duties. All energy was concentrated in doing for the soldiers. “When our boys come home we will do thus and so” was the oft repeated phrase. Sometimes at the dead of night the report of a pistol shot would warn us that the rebels were in town. But when daylight came we saw only the blue coats patrolling the streets, and they would leave as mysteriously as the rebels.

22_THE SIDETRACKED MISSION
THE SIDETRACKED MISSION:

23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked
May – 1863 – Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

24_Raider Andrew Leopold
NOTE Raider Andrew Leopold, whose sister, Sally Zittle, was a friend of Mary Entler, had been captured in late April, 1863 near Berryville and taken to a jail, awaiting trail for murder and other crimes.- JS

MLH:
A beautiful May morning, balmy air waiting the perfume of flowers over the country submerged in war. Sparkling dew drops resting in the bosom of such blossoms like tiny tear drops-weeping for the sad hearts made sad by war. God sends beautiful days in war as well as peace- we must remember that.

A young prepossessing girl introduced herself to me on this May morning as a sister of Andrew Leopold. She told me her brother had been captured by the Yankees and was confined in Fort McHenry, MD, and that the entreaties of her widowed mother had induced her to try to get through the Federal lines to have an interview with (Confederate) General J.E.B. Stuart in regard to having her brother exchanged as a prisoner of war. . . She had been sent to me by a southern woman who knew I had carried letters through to Charles Town and thought I would accompany the young lady to that place, and acquaint her with friends who would assist her through the lines. I hesitated a moment and she said with tears that his mother had a message from Baltimore that if some powerful influence was not brought to bear immediately that her brother would be executed as a guerilla. That decided the matter.

We started off in a one horse carriage for Charles Town. She as a traveler was attired in a brown suit with a cape to match trimmed with quilling around it and a brown straw hat with a veil. I was to spend the day only and was dressed in a blue “Dolly Varden” pattern dress, blue silk bonnet with wide turn over cuffs and concealed in the lining of these cuffs were slips of paper with names of prominent Southern sympathizers who we were to call upon for any assistance. Before starting we concluded it would be better to go under fictitious names – she as Lucy Hamilton, and I as Louise Hamilton, her cousin. And with hearts filled with hope we started off that bright May morning on our errand of mercy.

Charles Town was reached in good time. We stopped where we were directed at Mrs. L’s and urged for safety to stay all night here-Lucy to start next morning southward and I to return home would arouse no suspicion. The next morning was quite as beautiful and arrangements were completed when I found she was getting timid about starting off alone. She entreated me to go just as far as Berryville and then she thought she would feel brave enough to travel alone. It was a big undertaking for two young girls as the country was then all excitement and confusion. I finally agreed to go to Berryville. We knew exactly where to stop and whom to see. All was planned before starting from home. I will never forget how beautiful Berryville looked the morning we drove up to the hotel. It was a village embowered in beautiful green trees, blooming flowers. The bees humming in the nectar-laden flowers produced that lazy, peaceful quiet that is so soothing to tired nerves. We made our arrangements with the proprietor and took a stroll through the pretty, cool looking streets.

We met Union soldiers and plenty of them but we did not feel any fear of our plans failing. In the evening we called upon the family next to the hotel and had music until late that night. Next morning while arranging to separate we were visited by a Yankee officer saying he wished to know here were were going, and that we must take the oath. At first we refused to take the oath but when we consented to take it he would not let us, but placed us under arrest. What a frustrating of all our plans. How my heart ached for that poor girl. How she had built her hopes on securing the release of her brother on this venture.

Under arrest by the Federals, Gen. Milroy flabbergasted:

25_head-quarters of General Milroy
MLH:
Winchester reached, we were taken to the head-quarters of General Milroy where we found women, young and old, proud and defiant, now arguing their claims and proclaiming their grievances. One delicate, forlorn-looking widow relating to the General how his men, the Yankees, had taken her cows, her only means of support for her children. He turned from her quickly to my friend and me – if there had been the least disposition on my part to be humble – his exclamation put that feeling to flight and aroused a very rebellious state of mind. “What in the devil are you doing here? If it were not for the women running around the country we would not have so much trouble.” My companion started up with surprise. “General, we did not want to come here. We did not start for this place. Your officers brought us here.” He ran fingers through his mass of snow white hair already standing straight up like the quills of a porcupine and our of the audience chamber he strode without another word. He presented a fine physique, tall, well-proportioned, erect in carriage, a wealth of snow-white hair which suggested from its stand-up appearance that his fingers had a fashion of roaming there when troubles were to be, and plans and problems of great magnitude to be wrought out.

26_FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY
FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY:

June – 1863:

We were soon before the Provost Marshall at Martinsburg awaiting his orders. Next morning we were taken to General Kelly at Harper’s Ferry to await further orders. We were assigned to the best boarding house in the town adjoining the General’s headquarters where a great many of the officers boarded. We had a guard to watch our movements and prevent our escape if we thought of anything of the kind. We were allowed to walk around the town accompanied by the guard and sometimes were invited by officers, to whom we were introduced, to attend concerts and places of amusements but the guard invariably followed behind to the disgust of our gallants. Lucy and I ignored the guard altogether. We did not care how tired he became running over the old hills of Harper’s Ferry after us and many were the taunts and comments we overheard about “secesh” (Confederate-sympathcizing) prisoners.

“Miranda!” and the voice startled us – for it came from under the ground – a cottage, vine-clad and embowered in trees and bushes right under our feet on the slope of a hill. (The voice then said: “Here comes the two ‘secesh’ prisoners again trailing that poor tired guard after them as unusual. He looks like he is ready to drop. Much I would follow behind them over these hills.” She lived there under the hill with her beautiful daughter. She had lots and lots of beautiful flowers but not one would she give us after we humbled ourselves to ask for one because we were rebels.

At Harper’s Ferry with your five mountains, your bright Potomac, your smiling languid Shenandoah, your historic Jefferson’s Rock and romantic stone steps leading to the temple of God – St. Peter’s Church. In the yard of this church, high above the streets and houses of Harper’s Ferry, the Fifth New York Regiment Band discoursed sweet music every Sunday evening of the six weeks Lucy and I were prisoners. The sweet strains of the “Mocking Bird” as only Henry Frunkenfield could render them, echoed from Loudoun Heights across the great Shenandoah over the beautiful rock-ribbed Potomac of Maryland Heights, back again the mountain breezes wafted them though the streets and windows as if a hundred mocking birds were trilling their soul-felt song.

As a piece of fun, we were dressed in fantastic costumes, slipped down a stairway, of which the General had no knowledge to the kitchen, to dance for the cook and her black “Topsy”. The guard was told that we were about to make our escape. He hunted the house over for his prisoners and when he found us he did not recognize us for some time, our disguise was so complete. Two guards questioned us until they were finally convinced that we were not attempting an escape.

Sabbath days and week days were all the same at Harper’s Ferry during the war. The soldiers and citizens would promenade the streets. The crowds would send forth their martial airs, dignified and soul-stirring also their merry dance tunes. But this one Sabbath day seemed so different from all others that we had spent at that place. The day was declining and from the description of an Italian sunset, I think the sunset of this evening far surpassed any such Italian scene. The golden rays touched the tree tops and they looked like burnished gold. The strains of music came from the high rocks where St. Peter’s Church rests peacefully. Darts and streaks of gold tips of trees on the mountain tops – the birds twitter and call to their mates in low tones. There is a hush as if all nature were bowed in silent prayer as the twilight settles over the valley. The beauty of this Sabbath will never fade from my memory. It was my last one there as a prisoner. The stillness was soon changed to wild confusion and excitement.

Mary Entler Jumps Sides:

MLH:
I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in June, 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson.

MLH:
late August, 1864 – afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph Entler was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers.

27_PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES
PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES:

MLH married on February 15, 1865 in Frederick, Maryland Walter L. Herrington, a ticket-agent on the B&O Railroad at Harper’s Ferry.

1870:
They lived in her parents’ home of Wingerd Cottage, her parents having been forcibly retired from inn-keeping. Mary’s husband worked as a photographer then, that same year, died an untimely death.

1910: MLH had a dry goods and milliners shop on the south side of German Street.

1914: Mary Herrington paid in trust to George Beltzhoover the remaining western half of the lot of the once Great Western Hotel for $400, a sum to be paid to Nellie M. Entler. – December 5, 1914, Deed Book 111, p. 505. – Jefferson County Clerk.

1920:
Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller, and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.

On June 20th MLH sold the dual-lot Great Western Inn to relative Harry T. Licklider on the condition that she could still live in the inn her natural life with her brother, “the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” Two years later Licklider felt in arrears with the Swift Corporation and was sued and forced to sell the Great Western lands to pay off the debts. So the inn was gone from the family but MLH could literally live there, literally, on borrowed time.

She recalled:
Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War.

1930:
28_Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old
Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about $4,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Herrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.

1932:
Mary Louise Herrington died March 27, 1932, having given much of these recollections to Mary A. Licklider, a descendant of Mary’s brother, Cato Moore Entler. Her marker is in Elmwood Cemetery. That summer, the new owner of the Great Western began massive alterations and reductions.

Posted by Jim Surkamp on 2014-07-04 12:51:47

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From the Official Programme

THE NATIONAL COMMEMORATION OF THE CENTENARY OF THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN AND ANZAC DAY AT THE CENOTAPH, WHITEHALL, LONDON
HOSTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE HIGH COMMISSIONS OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND IN LONDON

On 25 April 1915 Allied soldiers landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey in one of the most ambitious amphibious assaults in history.

More than 550,000 soldiers from Britain, Ireland, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian sub-continent, Canada and Sri Lanka waged this historic campaign, including 400,000 from Britain alone. 58,000 Allied servicemen and 87,000 from Turkey died in this campaign.

ANZAC Day was established by Australia and New Zealand as an annual day of commemoration to remember their servicemen who died in Gallipoli. The first ANZAC Day march in London took place on 25 April 1916. ANZAC Day has been commemorated in London on 25 April every year since then.

ORDER OF SERVICE

11:00 Big Ben strikes the hour
Two minutes’ silence

The Last Post Sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

Reading by Michael Toohey, age 22, descendant of Private Thomas Toohey, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, killed in action at V beach on 25 April 1915, aged 22.

The Fallen by Laurence Binyon, 4th verse, published in The Times on 21 September 1914

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: age shall not weary them nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning, we will remember them.
All: We will remember them.

Laying of Wreaths

After Her Majesty The Queen has laid a wreath the Massed Bands will play Elegy (1915) – in memoriam Rupert Brooke – by F S Kelly (1881–1916) and Largo by G F Handel (1685–1759).

Her Majesty The Queen lays the first wreath followed by:
The Right Honourable David Cameron, Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Senator the Honourable George Brandis QC, Attorney General, Commonwealth of Australia
The Right Honourable David Carter MP, 29th Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives
A representative of the Republic of Turkey
The Right Honourable Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The Right Honourable Michael Fallon, Secretary of State for Defence
The Right Honourable Sajid Javid, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport
The Right Honourable Hugo Swire, Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Helen Grant, Minister for the First World War Centenary
Dr Andrew Murrison, Prime Minister’s Special Representative for the First World War Centenary
The Right Honourable Ed Miliband, Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition
Keith Brown MSP, Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure, Investment and Cities, Scottish Government
The Right Honourable Carwyn Jones, First Minister, Welsh Government
A representative of the Northern Ireland Executive
Lieutenant General Sir Gerry Berragan KBE CB, Adjutant General
Air Marshal Dick Garwood CB CBE DFC, Director General Defence Safety Authority
Vice Admiral Sir Philip Jones KCB, Fleet Commander and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
Lieutenant General John Caligari AO DSC, Chief Capability Development Group, Australian Defence Force
Brigadier Antony Hayward ONZ, Head New Zealand Defence Staff, New Zealand High Commission
Colonel Ömer Özkan, Air Attaché, Embassy of Turkey
A representative of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Steven Vandeput, Minister of Defence of Belgium
His Excellency Gordon Campbell, High Commissioner for Canada
A representative of the Republic of France
A representative of the Federal Republic of Germany
His Excellency Dr Ranjan Mathai, High Commissioner for the Republic of India
His Excellency Daniel Mulhall, Ambassador of Ireland to the United Kingdom
His Excellency The Honourable Joseph Muscat, Prime Minister of the Republic of Malta
A representative of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
His Excellency Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
His Excellency The Honourable Peter O’Neill CMG MP, Prime Minister of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea
His Excellency Mr Obed Mlaba, High Commissioner for the Republic of South Africa
A representative of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sonata Tupou, Acting High Commissioner for the Kingdom of Tonga
The Honourable Bronwyn Bishop MP, Speaker to the Australian House of Representatives
Bill Muirhead AM, Agent-General for South Australia
Ken Smith, Trade Commissioner for Europe and Agent General for UK at Trade & Investment Queensland
Kevin Skipworth CVO, Agent-General for Western Australia
Ian Matterson, Representative of the Premier of Tasmania
Mathew Erbs, on behalf of the Agent-General for Victoria
Gary Dunn, Deputy Commonwealth Secretary General
General The Lord Richards of Herstmonceux GCB CBE DSO, Deputy Grand President, British Commonwealth Ex-Servicemen’s League
Vice Admiral Peter Wilkinson CB CVO, National President, the Royal British Legion
Right Honourable The Viscount Slim OBE DL, Returned and Services League of Australia
Colonel Andrew Martin ONZM, Royal New Zealand Returned and Services Association
Lindsay Birrell, CEO, London Legacy
Captain Christopher Fagan DL, Chairman, The Gallipoli Association
The Honourable Mrs Ros Kelly AO, Commissioner, Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Sue Pillar, Director of Volunteer Support, Soldiers’ And Sailors’ Families Association (SSAFA)
Captain Jim Conybeare, Master, The Honourable Company of Master Mariners
Lyn Hopkins, Director General, The Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship
Sir Anthony Figgis KCVO CMG, Chairman, Royal Overseas League

Reveille sounded by buglers from the Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines

THE PRAYERS

Prayer by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

God our Father, we come together today to honour all those who gave themselves with great courage in service and sacrifice for their country in the Gallipoli Campaign. We pray that their example may continue to inspire us to strive for the common good, that we may build up the harmony and freedom for which they fought and died.

Help us O Lord, to lift our eyes above the torment of this broken world, and strengthen our resolve to work for peace and justice, and for the relief of want and suffering. As we honour the past, may we put our faith in your future; for you are the source of life and hope, now and forever. Amen.

Hymn led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

I Vow To Thee My Country

All:
I vow to thee, my country, all earthly things above,
Entire and whole and perfect, the service of my love;
The love that asks no question, the love that stands the test,
That lays upon the altar the dearest and the best;
The love that never falters, the love that pays the price,
The love that makes undaunted the final sacrifice.
I heard my country calling, away across the sea,
Across the waste of waters, she calls and calls to me.
Her sword is girded at her side, her helmet on her head,
And around her feet are lying the dying and the dead;
I hear the noise of battle, the thunder of her guns;
I haste to thee, my mother, a son among thy sons.
And there’s another country, I’ve heard of long ago,
Most dear to them that love her, most great to them that know;
We may not count her armies, we may not see her King;
Her fortress is a faithful heart, her pride is suffering;
And soul by soul and silently her shining bounds increase,
And her ways are ways of gentleness, and all her paths are peace.

Prayer read by Grace van Gageldonk (14 years old) from Australia

God of compassion and mercy, we remember with thanksgiving and sorrow, those whose lives in world wars and conflicts past and present, have been
given and taken away.
Enfold in your love, all who in bereavement, disability and pain, continue to suffer the consequences of fighting and terror; and guide and protect all those who support and sustain them. Amen.

National anthem Advance Australia Fair

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

Australians all let us rejoice,
For we are young and free;
We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil,
Our home is girt by sea;
Our land abounds in nature’s gifts
Of beauty rich and rare;
In history’s page, let every stage
Advance Australia Fair.
In joyful strains then let us sing,
‘Advance Australia Fair’.

Prayer read by Kathryn Cooper (11 years old) from New Zealand

God of hope, the source of peace and the refuge of all in distress, we remember those you have gathered from the storm of war into the everlasting peace of your presence; may that same peace calm our fears, bring reconciliation and justice to all peoples, and establish lasting harmony among the nations.

We pray for all members of the armed forces who strive for peace and fight for justice today; bless and keep their families and friends at home awaiting their return. Help us, who today remember the cost of war, to work for a better tomorrow, and bring us all, in the end, to the peace of your presence; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

National anthem God Defend New Zealand

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

E Ihowā _Atua,
O ngā _iwi mātou rā
Āta whakarangona;
Me aroha noa
Kia hua ko te pai;
Kia tau tō _atawhai;
Manaakitia mai
Aotearoa
God of Nations at Thy feet,
in the bonds of love we meet,
hear our voices, we entreat,
God defend our free land.
Guard Pacific’s triple star
from the shafts of strife and war,
make her praises heard afar,
God defend New Zealand.

Reading Atatürk’s message to bereaved pilgrims, 1934, read by Ecenur Bilgiç (14 years old) from Turkey

Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives…
You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace.

There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours…
You, the mothers, who sent their sons from faraway countries, wipe away your tears; your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace, after having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well.

National anthem İstiklal Marşı (The Independence March)

Led by Burak Gülşen from Turkey, accompanied by the Massed Bands

Korkma, sönmez bu şafaklarda yüzen al sancak;
Sönmeden yurdumun üstünde tüten en son ocak.
O benim milletimin yıldızıdır, parlayacak;
O benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak.
Çatma, kurban olayım, çehreni ey nazlı hilal!
Kahraman ırkıma bir gül! Ne bu şiddet, bu celal?
Sana olmaz dökülen kanlarımız sonra helal…
Hakkıdır, Hakk’a tapan, milletimin istiklal!
Fear not! For the crimson flag that flies at this dawn, shall not fade,
As long as the last fiery hearth that is ablaze in my country endures.
For that is the star of my nation, which will forever shine;
It is mine; and solely that of my valiant nation.
Frown not, I beseech you, oh thou coy crescent!
Come smile upon my heroic race! Why this rage, this fury?
The blood we shed for you shall not be blessed otherwise;
For independence is the absolute right of my God-worshipping nation.

Remembering Gallipoli a commemoration created by Michael McDermott

Music composed by Michael McDermott
Reading by James McDermott (17 years old) from the United Kingdom
The Attack at Dawn (May, 1915) by Leon Maxwell Gellert (1892–1977)

‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
They told us in the early afternoon.
We sit and wait the coming of the sun
We sit in groups, — grey groups that watch the moon.
We stretch our legs and murmur half in sleep
And touch the tips of bayonets and yarn.
Our hands are cold. They strangely grope and creep,
Tugging at ends of straps. We wait the dawn!
Some men come stumbling past in single file.
And scrape the trench’s side and scatter sand.
They trip and curse and go. Perhaps we smile.
We wait the dawn! … The dawn is close at hand!
A gentle rustling runs along the line.
‘At every cost,’ they said, ‘it must be done.’
A hundred eyes are staring for the sign.
It’s coming! Look! … Our God’s own laughing sun!

Closing prayers by The Venerable Ian Wheatley QHC, Royal Navy Chaplain of the Fleet

Eternal God,
from whom all thoughts of truth and peace proceed;
Kindle, we pray, in the hearts of all, the true love of peace
and guide with your pure and peaceable wisdom
those who take counsel for the nations of the world,
that in tranquillity your kingdom may go forward,
and all people may spend their days in security, freedom and peace;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Merciful God
we offer to you the fears in us
that have not yet been cast out by love:
may we accept the hope you have
placed in the hearts of all people,
and live lives of justice, courage and mercy;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Lord’s Prayer

All:
Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come, thy will be done;
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give is this day our daily bread.
And forgive is our trespasses,
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those that trespass against us.
And lead is not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom,
the power and the glory,
fro ver and ever. Amen.

The Blessing

God grant to the living grace, to the departed rest,
to the Church, the Queen, the Commonwealth and all people,
unity, peace and concord,
and to us and all God’s servants, life everlasting;
and the blessing of God almighty,
the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit,
be among you and remain with you always. Amen.

National anthem God Save the Queen

Led by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral and accompanied by the Massed Bands

God save our gracious Queen,
Long live our noble Queen.
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us;
God save the Queen!

They Are At Rest by Sir Edward Elgar (1857–1934), sung by the Choirs of Chelmsford Cathedral (unaccompanied)

THE MARCH PAST
Contingents from:
The Royal Navy
HMS QUEEN ELIZABETH
The Fleet Air Arm
The Submarine Service
Hybrid (HMS OCEAN, HMS ALBION,
Britannia Royal Naval College)
The Royal Marines
Maritime Reserves (Royal Navy
and Royal Marines Reserves)
Representatives from the Armed Forces of other countries who fought at Gallipoli
invited to join the March Past:
Australia
New Zealand
Canada
Turkey
India
Germany
Ireland
France
Bangladesh
Pakistan
South Africa
Papua New Guinea
Tonga
The Gallipoli Association
Naval Services Associations
The Royal Naval Association
The Royal Marines Association
Army Units and their Associations
The Royal Regiment of Artillery
The Royal Corps of Engineers
The Royal Regiment of Scotland
The Princess of Wales’ Royal Regiment
The Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment
The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers
The Royal Anglian Regiment
The Yorkshire Regiment
The Mercian Regiment
The Royal Welsh
The Royal Irish Regiment
The Royal Gurkha Rifles
The Rifles
The Royal Logistics Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Veterinary Corps
The Royal Yeomanry
The Royal Wessex Yeomanry
The Scottish and North Irish Yeomanry
The London Regiment
Court & City Yeomanry Association
In-Pensioners of the Royal Hospital Chelsea
The Turkish Air Force Band plays Marche Mustafa Kemal Atatürk by Fazıl Çağlayan
Followed by: Descendants of those whose ancestors were involved in the Gallipoli campaign and others who march past the Cenotaph every year to commemorate Anzac Day.

Posted by veryamateurish on 2015-05-01 22:36:57

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